Abstract: A field demonstration and longevity assessment for long-term monitoring of the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in a marine environment using an anti-TNT microfluidic immunosensor is described. The TNT immunosensor is comprised of a microfluidic device with 39 parallel microchannels (2.5 cm × 250 µm × 500 µm, L × W × D) fabricated in poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), then chemically functionalized with antibodies possessing a high affinity for TNT. Synthesized fluorescence reporter complexes used in a displacement-based assay format were used for TNT identification. For field deployment the TNT immunosensor was configured onto a submersible moored steel frame along with frame controller, pumps and TNT plume generator and deployed pier side for intermittent plume sampling of TNT (1h increments). Under varying current and tidal conditions trace levels of TNT in natural seawater were detected over an extended period (>18 h). Overnight operation and data recording was monitored via a web interface.
Keywords: 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT); explosives; immunosensor; seawater; fluorescence; remote
Export to BibTeX
MDPI and ACS Style
Charles, P.T.; Adams, A.A.; Deschamps, J.R.; Veitch, S.; Hanson, A.; Kusterbeck, A.W. Detection of Explosives in a Dynamic Marine Environment Using a Moored TNT Immunosensor. Sensors 2014, 14, 4074-4085.
Charles PT, Adams AA, Deschamps JR, Veitch S, Hanson A, Kusterbeck AW. Detection of Explosives in a Dynamic Marine Environment Using a Moored TNT Immunosensor. Sensors. 2014; 14(3):4074-4085.
Charles, Paul T.; Adams, André A.; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Veitch, Scott; Hanson, Al; Kusterbeck, Anne W. 2014. "Detection of Explosives in a Dynamic Marine Environment Using a Moored TNT Immunosensor." Sensors 14, no. 3: 4074-4085.