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Sensors 2014, 14(3), 4074-4085; doi:10.3390/s140304074
Article

Detection of Explosives in a Dynamic Marine Environment Using a Moored TNT Immunosensor

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Received: 18 December 2013; in revised form: 19 February 2014 / Accepted: 24 February 2014 / Published: 27 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemo- and Biosensors for Security and Defense)
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Abstract: A field demonstration and longevity assessment for long-term monitoring of the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in a marine environment using an anti-TNT microfluidic immunosensor is described. The TNT immunosensor is comprised of a microfluidic device with 39 parallel microchannels (2.5 cm × 250 µm × 500 µm, L × W × D) fabricated in poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), then chemically functionalized with antibodies possessing a high affinity for TNT. Synthesized fluorescence reporter complexes used in a displacement-based assay format were used for TNT identification. For field deployment the TNT immunosensor was configured onto a submersible moored steel frame along with frame controller, pumps and TNT plume generator and deployed pier side for intermittent plume sampling of TNT (1h increments). Under varying current and tidal conditions trace levels of TNT in natural seawater were detected over an extended period (>18 h). Overnight operation and data recording was monitored via a web interface.
Keywords: 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT); explosives; immunosensor; seawater; fluorescence; remote 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT); explosives; immunosensor; seawater; fluorescence; remote
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Charles, P.T.; Adams, A.A.; Deschamps, J.R.; Veitch, S.; Hanson, A.; Kusterbeck, A.W. Detection of Explosives in a Dynamic Marine Environment Using a Moored TNT Immunosensor. Sensors 2014, 14, 4074-4085.

AMA Style

Charles PT, Adams AA, Deschamps JR, Veitch S, Hanson A, Kusterbeck AW. Detection of Explosives in a Dynamic Marine Environment Using a Moored TNT Immunosensor. Sensors. 2014; 14(3):4074-4085.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Charles, Paul T.; Adams, André A.; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Veitch, Scott; Hanson, Al; Kusterbeck, Anne W. 2014. "Detection of Explosives in a Dynamic Marine Environment Using a Moored TNT Immunosensor." Sensors 14, no. 3: 4074-4085.


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