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Detection of Virgin Olive Oil Adulteration Using Low Field Unilateral NMR
State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment & System Security and New Technology, Chongqing University, 174 Shazhengjie, Shapingba, Chongqing 400044, China
School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane, Nottingham, NG11 8NS, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2013; in revised form: 20 January 2014 / Accepted: 23 January 2014 / Published: 24 January 2014
Abstract: The detection of adulteration in edible oils is a concern in the food industry, especially for the higher priced virgin olive oils. This article presents a low field unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for the detection of the adulteration of virgin olive oil that can be performed through sealed bottles providing a non-destructive screening technique. Adulterations of an extra virgin olive oil with different percentages of sunflower oil and red palm oil were measured with a commercial unilateral instrument, the profile NMR-Mouse. The NMR signal was processed using a 2-dimensional Inverse Laplace transformation to analyze the transverse relaxation and self-diffusion behaviors of different oils. The obtained results demonstrated the feasibility of detecting adulterations of olive oil with percentages of at least 10% of sunflower and red palm oils.
Keywords: adulteration; olive oil; unilateral NMR Mouse; transverse relaxation; diffusion
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Xu, Z.; Morris, R.H.; Bencsik, M.; Newton, M.I. Detection of Virgin Olive Oil Adulteration Using Low Field Unilateral NMR. Sensors 2014, 14, 2028-2035.
Xu Z, Morris RH, Bencsik M, Newton MI. Detection of Virgin Olive Oil Adulteration Using Low Field Unilateral NMR. Sensors. 2014; 14(2):2028-2035.
Xu, Zheng; Morris, Robert H.; Bencsik, Martin; Newton, Michael I. 2014. "Detection of Virgin Olive Oil Adulteration Using Low Field Unilateral NMR." Sensors 14, no. 2: 2028-2035.