Next Article in Journal
A Bio-Hybrid Tactile Sensor Incorporating Living Artificial Skin and an Impedance Sensing Array
Next Article in Special Issue
Radio Characterization for ISM 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks for Judo Monitoring Applications
Previous Article in Journal
Freshness-Preserving Non-Interactive Hierarchical Key Agreement Protocol over WHMS
Previous Article in Special Issue
Analysis of Radio Wave Propagation for ISM 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks in Inhomogeneous Vegetation Environments
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 23758-23780; doi:10.3390/s141223758

Soft, Comfortable Polymer Dry Electrodes for High Quality ECG and EEG Recording

1
KU Leuven-University of Leuven, Departement of Electrical Engineering, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, Leuven 3001, Belgium
2
IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, Heverlee 3001, Belgium
3
Datwyler Sealing Solutions, Industrieterrein Kolmen 1519, Alken 3570, Belgium
4
Department of Neurology, Ghent University Hospital, 1K12IA De Pintelaan 185, Gent 9000, Belgium
5
Holst Centre/imec-nl, High Tech Campus 31, 5656 AE Eindhoven, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 October 2014 / Revised: 22 November 2014 / Accepted: 2 December 2014 / Published: 10 December 2014
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2510 KB, uploaded 10 December 2014]   |  

Abstract

Conventional gel electrodes are widely used for biopotential measurements, despite important drawbacks such as skin irritation, long set-up time and uncomfortable removal. Recently introduced dry electrodes with rigid metal pins overcome most of these problems; however, their rigidity causes discomfort and pain. This paper presents dry electrodes offering high user comfort, since they are fabricated from EPDM rubber containing various additives for optimum conductivity, flexibility and ease of fabrication. The electrode impedance is measured on phantoms and human skin. After optimization of the polymer composition, the skin-electrode impedance is only ~10 times larger than that of gel electrodes. Therefore, these electrodes are directly capable of recording strong biopotential signals such as ECG while for low-amplitude signals such as EEG, the electrodes need to be coupled with an active circuit. EEG recordings using active polymer electrodes connected to a clinical EEG system show very promising results: alpha waves can be clearly observed when subjects close their eyes, and correlation and coherence analyses reveal high similarity between dry and gel electrode signals. Moreover, all subjects reported that our polymer electrodes did not cause discomfort. Hence, the polymer-based dry electrodes are promising alternatives to either rigid dry electrodes or conventional gel electrodes. View Full-Text
Keywords: flexible polymer dry electrode; material optimization; impedance; high quality biopotential recordings; ECG; EEG; high user comfort; conductive polymer flexible polymer dry electrode; material optimization; impedance; high quality biopotential recordings; ECG; EEG; high user comfort; conductive polymer
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, Y.-H.; de Beeck, M.O.; Vanderheyden, L.; Carrette, E.; Mihajlović, V.; Vanstreels, K.; Grundlehner, B.; Gadeyne, S.; Boon, P.; Van Hoof, C. Soft, Comfortable Polymer Dry Electrodes for High Quality ECG and EEG Recording. Sensors 2014, 14, 23758-23780.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top