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Sensors 2014, 14(12), 23539-23562; doi:10.3390/s141223539

Design Concepts, Fabrication and Advanced Characterization Methods of Innovative Piezoelectric Sensors Based on ZnO Nanowires

1
Electrical Engineering Division of DIAEE, University of Rome "La Sapienza", Rome 00184, Italy
2
International Research Center for Mathematics & Mechanics of Complex Systems, University of L'Aquila, Cisterna di Latina (LT) 04012, Italy, and with ENEA, Research Center Casaccia, Rome 00123, Italy
3
Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnology - CNR, Rome 00156, Italy
4
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department—DIMA, University of Rome "La Sapienza", Rome 00184, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2014 / Revised: 21 November 2014 / Accepted: 24 November 2014 / Published: 8 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy 2014)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [17386 KB, uploaded 8 December 2014]   |  

Abstract

Micro- and nano-scale materials and systems based on zinc oxide are expected to explode in their applications in the electronics and photonics, including nano-arrays of addressable optoelectronic devices and sensors, due to their outstanding properties, including semiconductivity and the presence of a direct bandgap, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity and biocompatibility. Most applications are based on the cooperative and average response of a large number of ZnO micro/nanostructures. However, in order to assess the quality of the materials and their performance, it is fundamental to characterize and then accurately model the specific electrical and piezoelectric properties of single ZnO structures. In this paper, we report on focused ion beam machined high aspect ratio nanowires and their mechanical and electrical (by means of conductive atomic force microscopy) characterization. Then, we investigate the suitability of new power-law design concepts to accurately model the relevant electrical and mechanical size-effects, whose existence has been emphasized in recent reviews. View Full-Text
Keywords: zinc oxide; nanowire; atomic force microscopy; FIB machining; conductive AFM; power-law design; FEM analysis zinc oxide; nanowire; atomic force microscopy; FIB machining; conductive AFM; power-law design; FEM analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Araneo, R.; Rinaldi, A.; Notargiacomo, A.; Bini, F.; Pea, M.; Celozzi, S.; Marinozzi, F.; Lovat, G. Design Concepts, Fabrication and Advanced Characterization Methods of Innovative Piezoelectric Sensors Based on ZnO Nanowires. Sensors 2014, 14, 23539-23562.

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