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Sensors 2013, 13(9), 11603-11635; doi:10.3390/s130911603

Human Detection from a Mobile Robot Using Fusion of Laser and Vision Information

Centro de Automática y Robótica, UPM-CSIC. Calle José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2. Madrid 28006, Spain
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Received: 25 June 2013 / Revised: 27 August 2013 / Accepted: 31 August 2013 / Published: 4 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain 2013)
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Abstract

This paper presents a human detection system that can be employed on board a mobile platform for use in autonomous surveillance of large outdoor infrastructures. The prediction is based on the fusion of two detection modules, one for the laser and another for the vision data. In the laser module, a novel feature set that better encapsulates variations due to noise, distance and human pose is proposed. This enhances the generalization of the system, while at the same time, increasing the outdoor performance in comparison with current methods. The vision module uses the combination of the histogram of oriented gradients descriptor and the linear support vector machine classifier. Current approaches use a fixed-size projection to define regions of interest on the image data using the range information from the laser range finder. When applied to small size unmanned ground vehicles, these techniques suffer from misalignment, due to platform vibrations and terrain irregularities. This is effectively addressed in this work by using a novel adaptive projection technique, which is based on a probabilistic formulation of the classifier performance. Finally, a probability calibration step is introduced in order to optimally fuse the information from both modules. Experiments in real world environments demonstrate the robustness of the proposed method.
Keywords: human detection; unmanned ground vehicle; outdoors surveillance; sensor fusion; laser range finder; monocular vision human detection; unmanned ground vehicle; outdoors surveillance; sensor fusion; laser range finder; monocular vision
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fotiadis, E.P.; Garzón, M.; Barrientos, A. Human Detection from a Mobile Robot Using Fusion of Laser and Vision Information. Sensors 2013, 13, 11603-11635.

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