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On-Line Flatness Measurement in the Steelmaking Industry
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Oviedo, E-33204 Gijón, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 June 2013; in revised form: 6 August 2013 / Accepted: 7 August 2013 / Published: 9 August 2013
Abstract: Shape is a key characteristic to determine the quality of outgoing flat-rolled products in the steel industry. It is greatly influenced by flatness, a feature to describe how the surface of a rolled product approaches a plane. Flatness is of the utmost importance in steelmaking, since it is used by most downstream processes and customers for the acceptance or rejection of rolled products. Flatness sensors compute flatness measurements based on comparing the length of several longitudinal fibers of the surface of the product under inspection. Two main different approaches are commonly used. On the one hand, most mechanical sensors measure the tensile stress across the width of the rolled product, while manufacturing and estimating the fiber lengths from this stress. On the other hand, optical sensors measure the length of the fibers by means of light patterns projected onto the product surface. In this paper, we review the techniques and the main sensors used in the steelmaking industry to measure and quantify flatness defects in steel plates, sheets and strips. Most of these techniques and sensors can be used in other industries involving rolling mills or continuous production lines, such as aluminum, copper and paper, to name a few. Encompassed in the special issue, State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain 2013, this paper also reviews the most important flatness sensors designed and developed for the steelmaking industry in Spain.
Keywords: shape measurement; flatness measurement; manifest and latent flatness; mechanical flatness sensor; optical flatness sensor; tensile stress measurement; optical triangulation; surface reconstruction
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Molleda, J.; Usamentiaga, R.; García, D.F. On-Line Flatness Measurement in the Steelmaking Industry. Sensors 2013, 13, 10245-10272.
Molleda J, Usamentiaga R, García DF. On-Line Flatness Measurement in the Steelmaking Industry. Sensors. 2013; 13(8):10245-10272.
Molleda, Julio; Usamentiaga, Rubén; García, Daniel F. 2013. "On-Line Flatness Measurement in the Steelmaking Industry." Sensors 13, no. 8: 10245-10272.