Next Article in Journal
Digital Video Broadcast-Terrestrial (DVB-T) Single Frequency Networks Positioning in Dynamic Scenarios
Next Article in Special Issue
Rapid Online Analysis of Local Feature Detectors and Their Complementarity
Previous Article in Journal
Nano-Molar Deltamethrin Sensor Based on Electrical Impedance of PAH/PAZO Layer-by-Layer Sensing Films
Previous Article in Special Issue
In-Plane Resonant Nano-Electro-Mechanical Sensors: A Comprehensive Study on Design, Fabrication and Characterization Challenges
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2013, 13(8), 10177-10190; doi:10.3390/s130810177

Potential of On-Line Visible and Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Measurement of pH for Deriving Variable Rate Lime Recommendations

1
Vocational School of Technical Sciences, Uludag University, Bursa 16059, Turkey
2
Environmental Science and Technology Department, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 May 2013 / Revised: 18 July 2013 / Accepted: 31 July 2013 / Published: 8 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in the UK 2013)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [584 KB, 21 June 2014; original version 21 June 2014]   |  

Abstract

This paper aims at exploring the potential of visible and near infrared (vis-NIR) spectroscopy for on-line measurement of soil pH, with the intention to produce variable rate lime recommendation maps. An on-line vis-NIR soil sensor set up to a frame was used in this study. Lime application maps, based on pH predicted by vis-NIR techniques, were compared with maps based on traditional lab-measured pH. The validation of the calibration model using off-line spectra provided excellent prediction accuracy of pH (R2 = 0.85, RMSEP = 0.18 and RPD = 2.52), as compared to very good accuracy obtained with the on-line measured spectra (R2 = 0.81, RMSEP = 0.20 and RPD = 2.14). On-line predicted pH of all points (e.g., 2,160) resulted in the largest overall field virtual lime requirement (1.404 t), as compared to those obtained with 16 validation points off-line prediction (0.28 t), on-line prediction (0.14 t) and laboratory reference measurement (0.48 t). The conclusion is that the vis-NIR spectroscopy can be successfully used for the prediction of soil pH and for deriving lime recommendations. The advantage of the on-line sensor over sampling with limited number of samples is that more detailed information about pH can be obtained, which is the reason for a higher but precise calculated lime recommendation rate.
Keywords: on-line soil sensor; vis-NIR spectroscopy; soil pH; lime recommendation map on-line soil sensor; vis-NIR spectroscopy; soil pH; lime recommendation map
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Tekin, Y.; Kuang, B.; Mouazen, A.M. Potential of On-Line Visible and Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Measurement of pH for Deriving Variable Rate Lime Recommendations. Sensors 2013, 13, 10177-10190.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top