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Sensors 2013, 13(4), 4811-4840; doi:10.3390/s130404811
Review

Immobilization Techniques in the Fabrication of Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Biosensors: A Review

1,2
 and 2,*
1 Department of Cell & Molecular Biology, Northwestern University, 303 E. Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA 2 Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Benedictine University, 5700 College Road, Lisle, IL 60532, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 March 2013 / Revised: 2 April 2013 / Accepted: 9 April 2013 / Published: 11 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymatic Biosensors)
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Abstract

The evolution of 1st to 3rd generation electrochemical biosensors reflects a simplification and enhancement of the transduction pathway. However, in recent years, modification of the transducer with nanomaterials has become increasingly studied and imparts many advantages. The sensitivity and overall performance of enzymatic biosensors has improved tremendously as a result of incorporating nanomaterials in their fabrication. Given the unique and favorable qualities of gold nanoparticles, graphene and carbon nanotubes as applied to electrochemical biosensors, a consolidated survey of the different methods of nanomaterial immobilization on transducer surfaces and enzyme immobilization on these species is beneficial and timely. This review encompasses modification of enzymatic biosensors with gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and graphene.
Keywords: biosensors; carbon nanotubes; electrochemical detection; enzyme-coupled electrochemical biosensors; enzyme immobilization; gold nanoparticles; graphene biosensors; carbon nanotubes; electrochemical detection; enzyme-coupled electrochemical biosensors; enzyme immobilization; gold nanoparticles; graphene
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Putzbach, W.; Ronkainen, N.J. Immobilization Techniques in the Fabrication of Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Biosensors: A Review. Sensors 2013, 13, 4811-4840.

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