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Development of a Sensor System for the Determination of Sanitary Quality of Grapes
Department of Chemical and Geological Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via G. Campi 183, 41125 Modena, Italy
Department of Engineering "Enzo Ferrari", University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, strada Vignolese 905, 41125 Modena, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 March 2013; in revised form: 1 April 2013 / Accepted: 1 April 2013 / Published: 8 April 2013
Abstract: n instrument for the automatic quantification of glycerol in grapes has been developed. We verify here that this analyte can be used as a benchmark of a serious disease affecting the grapevines, namely Botrytis cinerea. The core of the instrument is an amperometric biosensor consisting of a disposable screen printed electrode, generating the analytical signal thanks to a bi-enzymatic process involving glycerol dehydrogenase and diaphorase. The full automation of the analysis is realised by three micropumps and a microprocessor under control of a personal computer. The pumps allow the correct and constant dilution of the grape juice with a buffer solution also containing [Fe(CN)6]3− redox mediator and the injection of NAD+ cofactor when the baseline signal reaches a steady state; the instrument leads to automated reading of the analytical signal and the consequent data treatment. Although the analytical method is based on an amperometric technique that, owing to heavy matrix effects, usually requires an internal calibration, the analyses indicate that a unique external calibration is suitable for giving accurate responses for any grapes, both white and black ones.
Keywords: amperometric sensor; glycerol; glycerol dehydrogenase; diaphorase; Botrytis cinerea; screen printed electrodes; micropumps; microprocessor; grapes
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Zanardi, C.; Ferrari, L.; Zanfrognini, B.; Pigani, L.; Terzi, F.; Cattini, S.; Rovati, L.; Seeber, R. Development of a Sensor System for the Determination of Sanitary Quality of Grapes. Sensors 2013, 13, 4571-4580.
Zanardi C, Ferrari L, Zanfrognini B, Pigani L, Terzi F, Cattini S, Rovati L, Seeber R. Development of a Sensor System for the Determination of Sanitary Quality of Grapes. Sensors. 2013; 13(4):4571-4580.
Zanardi, Chiara; Ferrari, Luca; Zanfrognini, Barbara; Pigani, Laura; Terzi, Fabio; Cattini, Stefano; Rovati, Luigi; Seeber, Renato. 2013. "Development of a Sensor System for the Determination of Sanitary Quality of Grapes." Sensors 13, no. 4: 4571-4580.