Sensors 2013, 13(3), 3394-3408; doi:10.3390/s130303394
Article

Using a Standing-Tree Acoustic Tool to Identify Forest Stands for the Production of Mechanically-Graded Lumber

1email, 1email, 2email and 1,* email
Received: 25 January 2013; in revised form: 22 February 2013 / Accepted: 7 March 2013 / Published: 12 March 2013
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: This study investigates how the use of a Hitman ST300 acoustic sensor can help identify the best forest stands to be used as supply sources for the production of Machine Stress-Rated (MSR) lumber. Using two piezoelectric sensors, the ST300 measures the velocity of a mechanical wave induced in a standing tree. Measurements were made on 333 black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) trees from the North Shore region, Quebec (Canada) selected across a range of locations and along a chronosequence of elapsed time since the last fire (TSF). Logs were cut from a subsample of 39 trees, and sawn into 77 pieces of 38 mm × 89 mm cross-section before undergoing mechanical testing according to ASTM standard D-4761. A linear regression model was developed to predict the static modulus of elasticity of lumber using tree acoustic velocity and stem diameter at 1.3 m above ground level (R2 = 0.41). Results suggest that, at a regional level, 92% of the black spruce trees meet the requirements of MSR grade 1650Fb-1.5E, whilst 64% and 34% meet the 2100Fb-1.8E and 2400Fb-2.0E, respectively. Mature stands with a TSF < 150 years had 11 and 18% more boards in the latter two categories, respectively, and therefore represented the best supply source for MSR lumber.
Keywords: acoustic sensors; forestry wood chain; wood stiffness; machine stress-rated lumber
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [1667 KB, uploaded 21 June 2014 06:34 CEST]

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Paradis, N.; Auty, D.; Carter, P.; Achim, A. Using a Standing-Tree Acoustic Tool to Identify Forest Stands for the Production of Mechanically-Graded Lumber. Sensors 2013, 13, 3394-3408.

AMA Style

Paradis N, Auty D, Carter P, Achim A. Using a Standing-Tree Acoustic Tool to Identify Forest Stands for the Production of Mechanically-Graded Lumber. Sensors. 2013; 13(3):3394-3408.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Paradis, Normand; Auty, David; Carter, Peter; Achim, Alexis. 2013. "Using a Standing-Tree Acoustic Tool to Identify Forest Stands for the Production of Mechanically-Graded Lumber." Sensors 13, no. 3: 3394-3408.


Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert