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Autonomous Docking Based on Infrared System for Electric Vehicle Charging in Urban Areas
IMARA Team at INRIA Research Center, Domaine de Voluceau-Rocquencourt, BP 105, 78153 Le Chesnay, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 December 2012; in revised form: 24 January 2013 / Accepted: 5 February 2013 / Published: 21 February 2013
Abstract: Electric vehicles are progressively introduced in urban areas, because of their ability to reduce air pollution, fuel consumption and noise nuisance. Nowadays, some big cities are launching the first electric car-sharing projects to clear traffic jams and enhance urban mobility, as an alternative to the classic public transportation systems. However, there are still some problems to be solved related to energy storage, electric charging and autonomy. In this paper, we present an autonomous docking system for electric vehicles recharging based on an embarked infrared camera performing infrared beacons detection installed in the infrastructure. A visual servoing system coupled with an automatic controller allows the vehicle to dock accurately to the recharging booth in a street parking area. The results show good behavior of the implemented system, which is currently deployed as a real prototype system in the city of Paris.
Keywords: autonomous parking; electric vehicle; vision systems; docking system; lateral control
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Pérez, J.; Nashashibi, F.; Lefaudeux, B.; Resende, P.; Pollard, E. Autonomous Docking Based on Infrared System for Electric Vehicle Charging in Urban Areas. Sensors 2013, 13, 2645-2663.
Pérez J, Nashashibi F, Lefaudeux B, Resende P, Pollard E. Autonomous Docking Based on Infrared System for Electric Vehicle Charging in Urban Areas. Sensors. 2013; 13(2):2645-2663.
Pérez, Joshué; Nashashibi, Fawzi; Lefaudeux, Benjamin; Resende, Paulo; Pollard, Evangeline. 2013. "Autonomous Docking Based on Infrared System for Electric Vehicle Charging in Urban Areas." Sensors 13, no. 2: 2645-2663.