Sensors 2013, 13(2), 2645-2663; doi:10.3390/s130202645
Article

Autonomous Docking Based on Infrared System for Electric Vehicle Charging in Urban Areas

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Received: 11 December 2012; in revised form: 24 January 2013 / Accepted: 5 February 2013 / Published: 21 February 2013
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Electric vehicles are progressively introduced in urban areas, because of their ability to reduce air pollution, fuel consumption and noise nuisance. Nowadays, some big cities are launching the first electric car-sharing projects to clear traffic jams and enhance urban mobility, as an alternative to the classic public transportation systems. However, there are still some problems to be solved related to energy storage, electric charging and autonomy. In this paper, we present an autonomous docking system for electric vehicles recharging based on an embarked infrared camera performing infrared beacons detection installed in the infrastructure. A visual servoing system coupled with an automatic controller allows the vehicle to dock accurately to the recharging booth in a street parking area. The results show good behavior of the implemented system, which is currently deployed as a real prototype system in the city of Paris.
Keywords: autonomous parking; electric vehicle; vision systems; docking system; lateral control
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pérez, J.; Nashashibi, F.; Lefaudeux, B.; Resende, P.; Pollard, E. Autonomous Docking Based on Infrared System for Electric Vehicle Charging in Urban Areas. Sensors 2013, 13, 2645-2663.

AMA Style

Pérez J, Nashashibi F, Lefaudeux B, Resende P, Pollard E. Autonomous Docking Based on Infrared System for Electric Vehicle Charging in Urban Areas. Sensors. 2013; 13(2):2645-2663.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pérez, Joshué; Nashashibi, Fawzi; Lefaudeux, Benjamin; Resende, Paulo; Pollard, Evangeline. 2013. "Autonomous Docking Based on Infrared System for Electric Vehicle Charging in Urban Areas." Sensors 13, no. 2: 2645-2663.


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