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Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15085-15112; doi:10.3390/s131115085
Review

Immunoassays and Biosensors for the Detection of Cyanobacterial Toxins in Water

Received: 2 August 2013; in revised form: 11 October 2013 / Accepted: 14 October 2013 / Published: 5 November 2013
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Abstract: Algal blooms are a frequent phenomenon in nearly all kinds of fresh water. Global warming and eutrophication by waste water, air pollution and fertilizers seem to lead to an increased frequency of occurrence. Many cyanobacteria produce hazardous and quite persistent toxins, which can contaminate the respective water bodies. This may limit the use of the raw water for many purposes. The purification of the contaminated water might be quite costly, which makes a continuous and large scale treatment economically unfeasible in many cases. Due to the obvious risks of algal toxins, an online or mobile detection method would be highly desirable. Several biosensor systems have been presented in the literature for this purpose. In this review, their mode of operation, performance and general suitability for the intended purpose will be described and critically discussed. Finally, an outlook on current developments and future prospects will be given.
Keywords: algal toxins; cyanotoxins; biotoxins; blue-green algae; harmful algal blooms; microcystins; nodularins; anatoxin-a; anatoxin-a(s); cylindrospermopsin; saxitoxins algal toxins; cyanotoxins; biotoxins; blue-green algae; harmful algal blooms; microcystins; nodularins; anatoxin-a; anatoxin-a(s); cylindrospermopsin; saxitoxins
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Weller, M.G. Immunoassays and Biosensors for the Detection of Cyanobacterial Toxins in Water. Sensors 2013, 13, 15085-15112.

AMA Style

Weller MG. Immunoassays and Biosensors for the Detection of Cyanobacterial Toxins in Water. Sensors. 2013; 13(11):15085-15112.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Weller, Michael G. 2013. "Immunoassays and Biosensors for the Detection of Cyanobacterial Toxins in Water." Sensors 13, no. 11: 15085-15112.



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