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Immunoassays and Biosensors for the Detection of Cyanobacterial Toxins in Water
Division 1.5 Protein Analysis, BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Richard-Willstätter-Strasse 11, 12489 Berlin, Germany
Received: 2 August 2013; in revised form: 11 October 2013 / Accepted: 14 October 2013 / Published: 5 November 2013
Abstract: Algal blooms are a frequent phenomenon in nearly all kinds of fresh water. Global warming and eutrophication by waste water, air pollution and fertilizers seem to lead to an increased frequency of occurrence. Many cyanobacteria produce hazardous and quite persistent toxins, which can contaminate the respective water bodies. This may limit the use of the raw water for many purposes. The purification of the contaminated water might be quite costly, which makes a continuous and large scale treatment economically unfeasible in many cases. Due to the obvious risks of algal toxins, an online or mobile detection method would be highly desirable. Several biosensor systems have been presented in the literature for this purpose. In this review, their mode of operation, performance and general suitability for the intended purpose will be described and critically discussed. Finally, an outlook on current developments and future prospects will be given.
Keywords: algal toxins; cyanotoxins; biotoxins; blue-green algae; harmful algal blooms; microcystins; nodularins; anatoxin-a; anatoxin-a(s); cylindrospermopsin; saxitoxins
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Weller, M.G. Immunoassays and Biosensors for the Detection of Cyanobacterial Toxins in Water. Sensors 2013, 13, 15085-15112.
Weller MG. Immunoassays and Biosensors for the Detection of Cyanobacterial Toxins in Water. Sensors. 2013; 13(11):15085-15112.
Weller, Michael G. 2013. "Immunoassays and Biosensors for the Detection of Cyanobacterial Toxins in Water." Sensors 13, no. 11: 15085-15112.