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Sensors 2012, 12(9), 11853-11869; doi:10.3390/s120911853

Instrumentation in Developing Chlorophyll Fluorescence Biosensing: A Review

1
Biosystems Engineering CA, Postgraduate Study Division, Engineering Faculty, Autonomous University of Queretaro, Cerro de las Campanas St., Querétaro, 76010, Qro., Mexico
2
HSPdigital-CA Mecatronics, Engineering Faculty, Autonomous University of Queretaro, Campus San Juan del Rio, 249 Rio Moctezuma St., San Juan del Rio, 76807, Qro., Mexico
3
Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, Autonomous University of Sinaloa, Universitarios Blvd., De las Americas Ave., Cd. Universitaria, Culiacan, 80000, Sinaloa, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 June 2012 / Revised: 9 August 2012 / Accepted: 13 August 2012 / Published: 29 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor-Based Technologies and Processes in Agriculture and Forestry)
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Abstract

Chlorophyll fluorescence can be defined as the red and far-red light emitted by photosynthetic tissue when it is excited by a light source. This is an important phenomenon which permits investigators to obtain important information about the state of health of a photosynthetic sample. This article reviews the current state of the art knowledge regarding the design of new chlorophyll fluorescence sensing systems, providing appropriate information about processes, instrumentation and electronic devices. These types of systems and applications can be created to determine both comfort conditions and current problems within a given subject. The procedure to measure chlorophyll fluorescence is commonly split into two main parts; the first involves chlorophyll excitation, for which there are passive or active methods. The second part of the procedure is to closely measure the chlorophyll fluorescence response with specialized instrumentation systems. Such systems utilize several methods, each with different characteristics regarding to cost, resolution, ease of processing or portability. These methods for the most part include cameras, photodiodes and satellite images.
Keywords: fluorescence; chlorophyll; photosynthesis; instrumentation; LED; laser; Kautsky fluorescence; chlorophyll; photosynthesis; instrumentation; LED; laser; Kautsky
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fernandez-Jaramillo, A.A.; Duarte-Galvan, C.; Contreras-Medina, L.M.; Torres-Pacheco, I.; Romero-Troncoso, R.J.; Guevara-Gonzalez, R.G.; Millan-Almaraz, J.R. Instrumentation in Developing Chlorophyll Fluorescence Biosensing: A Review. Sensors 2012, 12, 11853-11869.

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