Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Body Area Networks Using the Finite-Difference-Time-Domain Method
Department of Electrical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31932, Saudi Arabia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 May 2012; in revised form: 10 July 2012 / Accepted: 10 July 2012 / Published: 23 July 2012
Abstract: A rigorous full-wave solution, via the Finite-Difference-Time-Domain (FDTD) method, is performed in an attempt to obtain realistic communication channel models for on-body wireless transmission in Body-Area-Networks (BANs), which are local data networks using the human body as a propagation medium. The problem of modeling the coupling between body mounted antennas is often not amenable to attack by hybrid techniques owing to the complex nature of the human body. For instance, the time-domain Green’s function approach becomes more involved when the antennas are not conformal. Furthermore, the human body is irregular in shape and has dispersion properties that are unique. One consequence of this is that we must resort to modeling the antenna network mounted on the body in its entirety, and the number of degrees of freedom (DoFs) can be on the order of billions. Even so, this type of problem can still be modeled by employing a parallel version of the FDTD algorithm running on a cluster. Lastly, we note that the results of rigorous simulation of BANs can serve as benchmarks for comparison with the abundance of measurement data.
Keywords: Body Area Networks; FDTD; conformal; numerical phantoms; Cole-Cole model; recursive convolution method; mutual coupling
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Bringuier, J.N.; Mittra, R. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Body Area Networks Using the Finite-Difference-Time-Domain Method. Sensors 2012, 12, 9862-9883.
Bringuier JN, Mittra R. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Body Area Networks Using the Finite-Difference-Time-Domain Method. Sensors. 2012; 12(7):9862-9883.
Bringuier, Jonathan N.; Mittra, Raj. 2012. "Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Body Area Networks Using the Finite-Difference-Time-Domain Method." Sensors 12, no. 7: 9862-9883.