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Sharing Human-Generated Observations by Integrating HMI and the Semantic Sensor Web
ETSI Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Avenida Complutense 30, E-28040 Madrid, Spain
Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, Distrito C. Edificio Oeste 1, Ronda de la Comunicación, s/n, 28050 Madrid, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 March 2012; in revised form: 3 May 2012 / Accepted: 3 May 2012 / Published: 11 May 2012
Abstract: Current “Internet of Things” concepts point to a future where connected objects gather meaningful information about their environment and share it with other objects and people. In particular, objects embedding Human Machine Interaction (HMI), such as mobile devices and, increasingly, connected vehicles, home appliances, urban interactive infrastructures, etc., may not only be conceived as sources of sensor information, but, through interaction with their users, they can also produce highly valuable context-aware human-generated observations. We believe that the great promise offered by combining and sharing all of the different sources of information available can be realized through the integration of HMI and Semantic Sensor Web technologies. This paper presents a technological framework that harmonizes two of the most influential HMI and Sensor Web initiatives: the W3C’s Multimodal Architecture and Interfaces (MMI) and the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) with its semantic extension, respectively. Although the proposed framework is general enough to be applied in a variety of connected objects integrating HMI, a particular development is presented for a connected car scenario where drivers’ observations about the traffic or their environment are shared across the Semantic Sensor Web. For implementation and evaluation purposes an on-board OSGi (Open Services Gateway Initiative) architecture was built, integrating several available HMI, Sensor Web and Semantic Web technologies. A technical performance test and a conceptual validation of the scenario with potential users are reported, with results suggesting the approach is sound.
Keywords: connected objects; connected cars; human-generated observations; Human-Machine Interaction; Sensor Web; Semantic Sensor Web
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Sigüenza, Á.; Díaz-Pardo, D.; Bernat, J.; Vancea, V.; Blanco, J.L.; Conejero, D.; Hernández Gómez, L. Sharing Human-Generated Observations by Integrating HMI and the Semantic Sensor Web. Sensors 2012, 12, 6307-6330.
Sigüenza Á, Díaz-Pardo D, Bernat J, Vancea V, Blanco JL, Conejero D, Hernández Gómez L. Sharing Human-Generated Observations by Integrating HMI and the Semantic Sensor Web. Sensors. 2012; 12(5):6307-6330.
Sigüenza, Álvaro; Díaz-Pardo, David; Bernat, Jesús; Vancea, Vasile; Blanco, José Luis; Conejero, David; Hernández Gómez, Luis. 2012. "Sharing Human-Generated Observations by Integrating HMI and the Semantic Sensor Web." Sensors 12, no. 5: 6307-6330.