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Sensors 2012, 12(4), 4803-4819; doi:10.3390/s120404803

Nanocharacterization of Soft Biological Samples in Shear Mode with Quartz Tuning Fork Probes

SIC-BIO, Bioelectronics and Nanobioengineering Group, Department of Electronics, University of Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 February 2012 / Revised: 29 March 2012 / Accepted: 30 March 2012 / Published: 12 April 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensing at the Nano-Scale: Chemical and Bio-Sensing)
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Quartz tuning forks are extremely good resonators and their use is growing in scanning probe microscopy. Nevertheless, only a few studies on soft biological samples have been reported using these probes. In this work, we present the methodology to develop and use these nanosensors to properly work with biological samples. The working principles, fabrication and experimental setup are presented. The results in the nanocharacterization of different samples in different ambients are presented by using different working modes: amplitude modulation with and without the use of a Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) and frequency modulation. Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria are imaged in nitrogen using amplitude modulation. Microcontact printed antibodies are imaged in buffer using amplitude modulation with a PLL. Finally, metastatic cells are imaged in air using frequency modulation.
Keywords: tuning fork; atomic force microscopy; nanocharacterization tuning fork; atomic force microscopy; nanocharacterization
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Otero, J.; Gonzalez, L.; Puig-Vidal, M. Nanocharacterization of Soft Biological Samples in Shear Mode with Quartz Tuning Fork Probes. Sensors 2012, 12, 4803-4819.

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