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A Smartphone-Based Driver Safety Monitoring System Using Data Fusion
Department of Electronic Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737, Korea
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 October 2012; in revised form: 12 December 2012 / Accepted: 13 December 2012 / Published: 17 December 2012
Abstract: This paper proposes a method for monitoring driver safety levels using a data fusion approach based on several discrete data types: eye features, bio-signal variation, in-vehicle temperature, and vehicle speed. The driver safety monitoring system was developed in practice in the form of an application for an Android-based smartphone device, where measuring safety-related data requires no extra monetary expenditure or equipment. Moreover, the system provides high resolution and flexibility. The safety monitoring process involves the fusion of attributes gathered from different sensors, including video, electrocardiography, photoplethysmography, temperature, and a three-axis accelerometer, that are assigned as input variables to an inference analysis framework. A Fuzzy Bayesian framework is designed to indicate the driver’s capability level and is updated continuously in real-time. The sensory data are transmitted via Bluetooth communication to the smartphone device. A fake incoming call warning service alerts the driver if his or her safety level is suspiciously compromised. Realistic testing of the system demonstrates the practical benefits of multiple features and their fusion in providing a more authentic and effective driver safety monitoring.
Keywords: driver safety; eye features; bio-signal variation; Android-based smartphone; Fuzzy Bayesian; photoplethysmography; electrocardiography; temperature sensor; three-axis accelerometer; Bluetooth
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Lee, B.-G.; Chung, W.-Y. A Smartphone-Based Driver Safety Monitoring System Using Data Fusion. Sensors 2012, 12, 17536-17552.
Lee B-G, Chung W-Y. A Smartphone-Based Driver Safety Monitoring System Using Data Fusion. Sensors. 2012; 12(12):17536-17552.
Lee, Boon-Giin; Chung, Wan-Young. 2012. "A Smartphone-Based Driver Safety Monitoring System Using Data Fusion." Sensors 12, no. 12: 17536-17552.