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Steering a Tractor by Means of an EMG-Based Human-Machine Interface
Department of Signal Theory, Communications and Telematics Engineering, University ofm Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 June 2011; in revised form: 4 July 2011 / Accepted: 7 July 2011 / Published: 11 July 2011
Abstract: An electromiographic (EMG)-based human-machine interface (HMI) is a communication pathway between a human and a machine that operates by means of the acquisition and processing of EMG signals. This article explores the use of EMG-based HMIs in the steering of farm tractors. An EPOC, a low-cost human-computer interface (HCI) from the Emotiv Company, was employed. This device, by means of 14 saline sensors, measures and processes EMG and electroencephalographic (EEG) signals from the scalp of the driver. In our tests, the HMI took into account only the detection of four trained muscular events on the driver’s scalp: eyes looking to the right and jaw opened, eyes looking to the right and jaw closed, eyes looking to the left and jaw opened, and eyes looking to the left and jaw closed. The EMG-based HMI guidance was compared with manual guidance and with autonomous GPS guidance. A driver tested these three guidance systems along three different trajectories: a straight line, a step, and a circumference. The accuracy of the EMG-based HMI guidance was lower than the accuracy obtained by manual guidance, which was lower in turn than the accuracy obtained by the autonomous GPS guidance; the computed standard deviations of error to the desired trajectory in the straight line were 16 cm, 9 cm, and 4 cm, respectively. Since the standard deviation between the manual guidance and the EMG-based HMI guidance differed only 7 cm, and this difference is not relevant in agricultural steering, it can be concluded that it is possible to steer a tractor by an EMG-based HMI with almost the same accuracy as with manual steering.
Keywords: agricultural vehicles; human-machine interface (HMI); human-computer interface (HCI); brain-computer interface (BCI); electroencephalography (EEG); control; global positioning system (GPS); tractor, guidance
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Gomez-Gil, J.; San-Jose-Gonzalez, I.; Nicolas-Alonso, L.F.; Alonso-Garcia, S. Steering a Tractor by Means of an EMG-Based Human-Machine Interface. Sensors 2011, 11, 7110-7126.
Gomez-Gil J, San-Jose-Gonzalez I, Nicolas-Alonso LF, Alonso-Garcia S. Steering a Tractor by Means of an EMG-Based Human-Machine Interface. Sensors. 2011; 11(7):7110-7126.
Gomez-Gil, Jaime; San-Jose-Gonzalez, Israel; Nicolas-Alonso, Luis Fernando; Alonso-Garcia, Sergio. 2011. "Steering a Tractor by Means of an EMG-Based Human-Machine Interface." Sensors 11, no. 7: 7110-7126.