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Application of an E-Tongue to the Analysis of Monovarietal and Blends of White Wines
Instituto de Microelectrónica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM), CSIC. Campus UAB, 08193, Bellaterra, Spain
Estació de Viticultura i Enologia, Institut Català de la Vinya i el Vi (INCAVI). Plaça Àgora, 2-3, 08720, Vilafranca del Penedès, Spain
Institut für Mikrotechnik, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Alte Salzdahlumer Straβe 203, 38124, Braunschweig, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 March 2011 / Accepted: 29 April 2011 / Published: 3 May 2011
Abstract: This work presents a multiparametric system capable of characterizing and classifying white wines according to the grape variety and geographical origin. Besides, it quantifies specific parameters of interest for quality control in wine. The system, known as a hybrid electronic tongue, consists of an array of electrochemical microsensors—six ISFET based sensors, a conductivity sensor, a redox potential sensor and two amperometric electrodes, a gold microelectrode and a microelectrode for sensing electrochemical oxygen demand—and a miniaturized optofluidic system. The test sample set comprised eighteen Catalan monovarietal white wines from four different grape varieties, two Croatian monovarietal white wines and seven bi- and trivarietal mixtures prepared from the Catalan varieties. Different chemometric tools were used to characterize (i.e., Principal Component Analysis), classify (i.e., Soft Independent Modeling Class Analogy) and quantify (i.e., Partial-Least Squares) some parameters of interest. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the multisensor system for analysis of wine.
Keywords: hybrid electronic tongue; electrochemical microsensors; photonic lab on a chip; wine analysis; multivariate chemometric tools
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Gutiérrez, M.; Llobera, A.; Ipatov, A.; Vila-Planas, J.; Mínguez, S.; Demming, S.; Büttgenbach, S.; Capdevila, F.; Domingo, C.; Jiménez-Jorquera, C. Application of an E-Tongue to the Analysis of Monovarietal and Blends of White Wines. Sensors 2011, 11, 4840-4857.
Gutiérrez M, Llobera A, Ipatov A, Vila-Planas J, Mínguez S, Demming S, Büttgenbach S, Capdevila F, Domingo C, Jiménez-Jorquera C. Application of an E-Tongue to the Analysis of Monovarietal and Blends of White Wines. Sensors. 2011; 11(5):4840-4857.
Gutiérrez, Manuel; Llobera, Andreu; Ipatov, Andrey; Vila-Planas, Jordi; Mínguez, Santiago; Demming, Stefanie; Büttgenbach, Stephanus; Capdevila, Fina; Domingo, Carme; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia. 2011. "Application of an E-Tongue to the Analysis of Monovarietal and Blends of White Wines." Sensors 11, no. 5: 4840-4857.