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Sensors 2011, 11(3), 2715-2727; doi:10.3390/s110302715

Wireless Remote Weather Monitoring System Based on MEMS Technologies

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chinese Military Academy, Kaohsiung 830, Taiwan 2 Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Changhua 515, Taiwan 3 Department of Materials Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 December 2010 / Revised: 12 February 2011 / Accepted: 14 February 2011 / Published: 1 March 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10 Years Sensors - A Decade of Publishing)
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This study proposes a wireless remote weather monitoring system based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and wireless sensor network (WSN) technologies comprising sensors for the measurement of temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed and direction, integrated on a single chip. The sensing signals are transmitted between the Octopus II-A sensor nodes using WSN technology, following amplification and analog/digital conversion (ADC). Experimental results show that the resistance of the micro temperature sensor increases linearly with input temperature, with an average TCR (temperature coefficient of resistance) value of 8.2 × 10−4 (°C−1). The resistance of the pressure sensor also increases linearly with air pressure, with an average sensitivity value of 3.5 × 10−2 (Ω/kPa). The sensitivity to humidity increases with ambient temperature due to the effect of temperature on the dielectric constant, which was determined to be 16.9, 21.4, 27.0, and 38.2 (pF/%RH) at 27 °C, 30 °C, 40 °C, and 50 °C, respectively. The velocity of airflow is obtained by summing the variations in resistor response as airflow passed over the sensors providing sensitivity of 4.2 × 10−2, 9.2 × 10−2, 9.7 × 10−2 (Ω/ms−1) with power consumption by the heating resistor of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.5 W, respectively. The passage of air across the surface of the flow sensors prompts variations in temperature among each of the sensing resistors. Evaluating these variations in resistance caused by the temperature change enables the measurement of wind direction.
Keywords: MEMS; WSN; weather monitoring system MEMS; WSN; weather monitoring system
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Ma, R.-H.; Wang, Y.-H.; Lee, C.-Y. Wireless Remote Weather Monitoring System Based on MEMS Technologies. Sensors 2011, 11, 2715-2727.

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