Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Sensors 2011, 11(12), 11056-11063; doi:10.3390/s111211056
Article

Earthworm (Eisenia andrei) Avoidance of Soils Treated with Cypermethrin

1
 and 2,*
Received: 11 October 2011; in revised form: 11 November 2011 / Accepted: 22 November 2011 / Published: 28 November 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensing of Organic Pollution in Soil, Air, Water and Food)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [181 KB, uploaded 21 June 2014]
Abstract: The pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin is used for agricultural and public health campaigns. Its residues may contaminate soils and the beneficial soil organisms, like the earthworms, that may ingest the contaminated soil particles. Due to its ecological relevance, earthworms Eisenia andrei/fetida have been used in different ecotoxicological tests. The avoidance of soils treated with cypermethrin by compost worms Eisenia andrei was studied here as a bioindicator of the influence of treatment dosage and the pesticide formulation in three different agricultural soils indicated by the Brazilian environmental authorities for ecotoxicological tests. This earthworms’ behavior was studied here as a first attempt to propose the test for regulation purposes. The two-compartment test systems, where the earthworms were placed for a two-day exposure period, contained samples of untreated soil alone or together with soil treated with technical grade or wettable powder formulation of cypermethrin. After 48 h, there was no mortality, but the avoidance was clear because all earthworms were found in the untreated section of each type of soil (p < 0.05). No differences were found by the Fisher’s exact test (p ≤ 1.000) for each soil and treatment, demonstrating that the different soil characteristics, the cypermethrin concentrations and formulation, as well as the smaller amounts of soil and earthworms did not influence the avoidance behavior of the earthworms to cypermethrin. The number and range of treatments used in this study do not allow a detailed recommendation of the conditions applied here, but to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported attempt to identify the avoidance of pesticide treated tropical soils by earthworms.
Keywords: pesticide; pyrethroid; soil parameters; pesticide formulation pesticide; pyrethroid; soil parameters; pesticide formulation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Sousa, A.P.A.; Andréa, M.M. Earthworm (Eisenia andrei) Avoidance of Soils Treated with Cypermethrin. Sensors 2011, 11, 11056-11063.

AMA Style

Sousa APA, Andréa MM. Earthworm (Eisenia andrei) Avoidance of Soils Treated with Cypermethrin. Sensors. 2011; 11(12):11056-11063.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sousa, Ana Paula A. de; Andréa, Mara M. de. 2011. "Earthworm (Eisenia andrei) Avoidance of Soils Treated with Cypermethrin." Sensors 11, no. 12: 11056-11063.



Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert