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Calibrating Single-Ended Fiber-Optic Raman Spectra Distributed Temperature Sensing Data
Department of Geologic Sciences and Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, MS 172, Reno, NV 89557, USA
Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University, Campus Box 90383, Durham, NC 27708, USA
Civil Engineering and Geosciences, TU Delft, P.O. Box 5048, 2600 GA, Delft, Netherlands
Department of Biological and Ecological Engineering, Oregon State University, 116 Gilmore Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 October 2011; in revised form: 15 November 2011 / Accepted: 16 November 2011 / Published: 21 November 2011
Abstract: Hydrologic research is a very demanding application of fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) in terms of precision, accuracy and calibration. The physics behind the most frequently used DTS instruments are considered as they apply to four calibration methods for single-ended DTS installations. The new methods presented are more accurate than the instrument-calibrated data, achieving accuracies on the order of tenths of a degree root mean square error (RMSE) and mean bias. Effects of localized non-uniformities that violate the assumptions of single-ended calibration data are explored and quantified. Experimental design considerations such as selection of integration times or selection of the length of the reference sections are discussed, and the impacts of these considerations on calibrated temperatures are explored in two case studies.
Keywords: distributed temperature sensing; calibration; hydrology; temperature
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Hausner, M.B.; Suárez, F.; Glander, K.E.; Giesen, N.; Selker, J.S.; Tyler, S.W. Calibrating Single-Ended Fiber-Optic Raman Spectra Distributed Temperature Sensing Data. Sensors 2011, 11, 10859-10879.
Hausner MB, Suárez F, Glander KE, Giesen N, Selker JS, Tyler SW. Calibrating Single-Ended Fiber-Optic Raman Spectra Distributed Temperature Sensing Data. Sensors. 2011; 11(11):10859-10879.
Hausner, Mark B.; Suárez, Francisco; Glander, Kenneth E.; Giesen, Nick van de; Selker, John S.; Tyler, Scott W. 2011. "Calibrating Single-Ended Fiber-Optic Raman Spectra Distributed Temperature Sensing Data." Sensors 11, no. 11: 10859-10879.