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Measuring Time-of-Flight in an Ultrasonic LPS System Using Generalized Cross-Correlation
Department of Electronics, Polytechnic School, University of Alcalá, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona Km. 33,600, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid 28805, Spain
Department of Electronic Engineering, National University of Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Ciudad Universitaria, Ruta Provincial n° 1 s/n, km. 4, Comodoro Rivadavia (Chubut) 9000, Argentina
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 August 2011; in revised form: 28 September 2011 / Accepted: 24 October 2011 / Published: 31 October 2011
Abstract: In this article, a time-of-flight detection technique in the frequency domain is described for an ultrasonic Local Positioning System (LPS) based on encoded beacons. Beacon transmissions have been synchronized and become simultaneous by means of the DS-CDMA (Direct-Sequence Code Division Multiple Access) technique. Every beacon has been associated to a 255-bit Kasami code. The detection of signal arrival instant at the receiver, from which the distance to each beacon can be obtained, is based on the application of the Generalized Cross-Correlation (GCC), by using the cross-spectral density between the received signal and the sequence to be detected. Prior filtering to enhance the frequency components around the carrier frequency (40 kHz) has improved estimations when obtaining the correlation function maximum, which implies an improvement in distance measurement precision. Positioning has been achieved by using hyperbolic trilateration, based on the Time Differences of Arrival (TDOA) between a reference beacon and the others.
Keywords: generalized cross-correlation; ultrasonic LPS; phase transform; Kasami codes
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Villladangos, J.M.; Ureña, J.; García, J.J.; Mazo, M.; Hernández, Á.; Jiménez, A.; Ruíz, D.; Marziani, C.D. Measuring Time-of-Flight in an Ultrasonic LPS System Using Generalized Cross-Correlation. Sensors 2011, 11, 10326-10342.
Villladangos JM, Ureña J, García JJ, Mazo M, Hernández Á, Jiménez A, Ruíz D, Marziani CD. Measuring Time-of-Flight in an Ultrasonic LPS System Using Generalized Cross-Correlation. Sensors. 2011; 11(11):10326-10342.
Villladangos, José Manuel; Ureña, Jesús; García, Juan Jesús; Mazo, Manuel; Hernández, Álvaro; Jiménez, Ana; Ruíz, Daniel; Marziani, Carlos De. 2011. "Measuring Time-of-Flight in an Ultrasonic LPS System Using Generalized Cross-Correlation." Sensors 11, no. 11: 10326-10342.