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GFZ Wireless Seismic Array (GFZ-WISE), a Wireless Mesh Network of Seismic Sensors: New Perspectives for Seismic Noise Array Investigations and Site Monitoring
Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Germany
Department of Informatics, Humboldt University (HU) Berlin, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 February 2010; in revised form: 12 March 2010 / Accepted: 15 March 2010 / Published: 1 April 2010
Abstract: Over the last few years, the analysis of seismic noise recorded by two dimensional arrays has been confirmed to be capable of deriving the subsoil shear-wave velocity structure down to several hundred meters depth. In fact, using just a few minutes of seismic noise recordings and combining this with the well known horizontal-to-vertical method, it has also been shown that it is possible to investigate the average one dimensional velocity structure below an array of stations in urban areas with a sufficient resolution to depths that would be prohibitive with active source array surveys, while in addition reducing the number of boreholes required to be drilled for site-effect analysis. However, the high cost of standard seismological instrumentation limits the number of sensors generally available for two-dimensional array measurements (i.e., of the order of 10), limiting the resolution in the estimated shear-wave velocity profiles. Therefore, new themes in site-effect estimation research by two-dimensional arrays involve the development and application of low-cost instrumentation, which potentially allows the performance of dense-array measurements, and the development of dedicated signal-analysis procedures for rapid and robust estimation of shear-wave velocity profiles. In this work, we present novel low-cost wireless instrumentation for dense two-dimensional ambient seismic noise array measurements that allows the real–time analysis of the surface-wavefield and the rapid estimation of the local shear-wave velocity structure for site response studies. We first introduce the general philosophy of the new system, as well as the hardware and software that forms the novel instrument, which we have tested in laboratory and field studies.
Keywords: sensor network; seismic array; wireless mesh network; site effects; MEMS; earthquake risk
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Picozzi, M.; Milkereit, C.; Parolai, S.; Jaeckel, K.-H.; Veit, I.; Fischer, J.; Zschau, J. GFZ Wireless Seismic Array (GFZ-WISE), a Wireless Mesh Network of Seismic Sensors: New Perspectives for Seismic Noise Array Investigations and Site Monitoring. Sensors 2010, 10, 3280-3304.
Picozzi M, Milkereit C, Parolai S, Jaeckel K-H, Veit I, Fischer J, Zschau J. GFZ Wireless Seismic Array (GFZ-WISE), a Wireless Mesh Network of Seismic Sensors: New Perspectives for Seismic Noise Array Investigations and Site Monitoring. Sensors. 2010; 10(4):3280-3304.
Picozzi, Matteo; Milkereit, Claus; Parolai, Stefano; Jaeckel, Karl-Heinz; Veit, Ingo; Fischer, Joachim; Zschau, Jochen. 2010. "GFZ Wireless Seismic Array (GFZ-WISE), a Wireless Mesh Network of Seismic Sensors: New Perspectives for Seismic Noise Array Investigations and Site Monitoring." Sensors 10, no. 4: 3280-3304.