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Diversity 2016, 8(2), 11; doi:10.3390/d8020011

Prevalence and Incidence of Black Band Disease of Scleractinian Corals in the Kepulauan Seribu Region of Indonesia

1
Research and Development Institute for Ornamental Fish Culture, Jl. Perikanan No. 13, Pancoran Mas, Kota Depok, Jawa Barat 16436, Indonesia
2
Department of Marine Science and Technology, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Bogor Agricultural University, Jl. Agatis No.1 Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
3
School of Biological Sciences, Medical Biology Centre, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 7BL, UK
4
Molecular Health and Disease Laboratory, Enviornmental Sustainability Research Centre, College of Life and Natural Sciences, University of Derby, Kedleston Road, Derby DE22 1GB, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Zoe Richards and Michael Wink
Received: 11 January 2016 / Revised: 9 April 2016 / Accepted: 15 April 2016 / Published: 28 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coral Reef Biodiversity and Conservation)
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Abstract

Black band disease (BBD) is the oldest recognised disease associated with scleractinian corals. However, despite this, few BBD surveys have been conducted in the Indonesian archipelago, one of the world’s hot spots for coral diversity. In this study, we show that BBD was recorded in the reefs of Kepulauan Seribu, Indonesia, at the time of surveying. The disease was found to mainly infect corals of the genus Montipora. In some instances, upwards of 177 colonies (31.64%) were found to be infected at specific sites. Prevalence of the disease ranged from 0.31% to 31.64% of Montipora sp. colonies throughout the archipelago. Although BBD was found at all sites, lower frequencies were associated with sites closest to the mainland (17.99 km), as well as those that were furthest away (63.65 km). Despite there being no linear relationship between distance from major population centers and BBD incidence, high incidences of this disease were associated with sites characterized by higher levels of light intensity. Furthermore, surveys revealed that outbreaks peaked during the transitional period between the dry and rainy seasons. Therefore, we suggest that future surveys for disease prevalence in this region of Indonesia should focus on these transitory periods. View Full-Text
Keywords: black band disease; coral reef; light intensity; Montipora; water pollution black band disease; coral reef; light intensity; Montipora; water pollution
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Johan, O.; Zamany, N.P.; Smith, D.; Sweet, M.J. Prevalence and Incidence of Black Band Disease of Scleractinian Corals in the Kepulauan Seribu Region of Indonesia. Diversity 2016, 8, 11.

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