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Diversity 2016, 8(2), 10; doi:10.3390/d8020010

Genetic Diversity in Apple Fruit Moth Indicate Different Clusters in the Two Most Important Apple Growing Regions of Norway

NIBIO—Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Hogskoleveien 7, N-1432 Aas, Norway
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Academic Editor: Michael Wink
Received: 3 November 2015 / Revised: 5 April 2016 / Accepted: 6 April 2016 / Published: 13 April 2016
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Abstract

The apple fruit moth (Argyresthia conjugella (A. conjugella)) in Norway was first identified as a pest in apple production in 1899. We here report the first genetic analysis of A. conjugella using molecular markers. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was applied to 95 individuals from six different locations in the two most important apple-growing regions of Norway. Five AFLP primer combinations gave 410 clear polymorphic bands that distinguished all the individuals. Further genetic analysis using the Dice coefficient, Principal Coordinate analysis (PCO) and Bayesian analyses suggested clustering of the individuals into two main groups showing substantial genetic distance. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed greater variation among populations (77.94%) than within populations (22.06%) and significant and high FST values were determined between the two major regions (Distance = 230 km, FST = 0.780). AFLP analysis revealed low to moderate genetic diversity in our population sample from Norway (Average: 0.31 expected heterozygosity). The positive significant correlation between the geographic and the molecular data (r2 = 0.6700) indicate that genetic differences between the two major regions may be due to geographical barriers such as high mountain plateaus (Hardangervidda) in addition to isolation by distance (IBD). View Full-Text
Keywords: AFLP; Argyresthia conjugella; gene flow; genetic differentiation; isolation by distance (IBD); Lepidoptera AFLP; Argyresthia conjugella; gene flow; genetic differentiation; isolation by distance (IBD); Lepidoptera
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Elameen, A.; Eiken, H.G.; Knudsen, G.K. Genetic Diversity in Apple Fruit Moth Indicate Different Clusters in the Two Most Important Apple Growing Regions of Norway. Diversity 2016, 8, 10.

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