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Diversity 2014, 6(2), 188-282; doi:10.3390/d6020188

Diversity of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in the Boraginaceae Structures, Distribution, and Biological Properties

1
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
2
Institute of Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology, Heidelberg University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 364, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 February 2014 / Revised: 24 February 2014 / Accepted: 13 March 2014 / Published: 1 April 2014
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Abstract

Among the diversity of secondary metabolites which are produced by plants as means of defence against herbivores and microbes, pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are common in Boraginaceae, Asteraceae and some other plant families. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are infamous as toxic compounds which can alkylate DNA und thus cause mutations and even cancer in herbivores and humans. Almost all genera of the family Boraginaceae synthesize and store this type of alkaloids. This review reports the available information on the present status (literature up to early 2014) of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the Boraginaceae and summarizes the topics structure, distribution, chemistry, chemotaxonomic significance, and biological properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: pyrrolizidine alkaloids; Boraginaceae; distribution; structures; NMR spectroscopy; mass spectrometry; biological properties pyrrolizidine alkaloids; Boraginaceae; distribution; structures; NMR spectroscopy; mass spectrometry; biological properties
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

El-Shazly, A.; Wink, M. Diversity of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in the Boraginaceae Structures, Distribution, and Biological Properties. Diversity 2014, 6, 188-282.

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