Diversity 2014, 6(2), 188-282; doi:10.3390/d6020188
Review

Diversity of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in the Boraginaceae Structures, Distribution, and Biological Properties

1email and 2,* email
Received: 6 February 2014; in revised form: 24 February 2014 / Accepted: 13 March 2014 / Published: 1 April 2014
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Among the diversity of secondary metabolites which are produced by plants as means of defence against herbivores and microbes, pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are common in Boraginaceae, Asteraceae and some other plant families. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are infamous as toxic compounds which can alkylate DNA und thus cause mutations and even cancer in herbivores and humans. Almost all genera of the family Boraginaceae synthesize and store this type of alkaloids. This review reports the available information on the present status (literature up to early 2014) of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the Boraginaceae and summarizes the topics structure, distribution, chemistry, chemotaxonomic significance, and biological properties.
Keywords: pyrrolizidine alkaloids; Boraginaceae; distribution; structures; NMR spectroscopy; mass spectrometry; biological properties
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MDPI and ACS Style

El-Shazly, A.; Wink, M. Diversity of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in the Boraginaceae Structures, Distribution, and Biological Properties. Diversity 2014, 6, 188-282.

AMA Style

El-Shazly A, Wink M. Diversity of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in the Boraginaceae Structures, Distribution, and Biological Properties. Diversity. 2014; 6(2):188-282.

Chicago/Turabian Style

El-Shazly, Assem; Wink, Michael. 2014. "Diversity of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in the Boraginaceae Structures, Distribution, and Biological Properties." Diversity 6, no. 2: 188-282.

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