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Diversity 2014, 6(1), 178-187; doi:10.3390/d6010178
Communication

Meta-Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Reveals Several Population Bottlenecks during Worldwide Migrations of Cattle

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1 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, Utrecht 3584CM, The Netherlands 2 Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Zootechnics and BioDNA-Biodiversity and Ancient DNA Research Center, Via Emilia Parmense 84, Piacenza 29122, Italy 3 Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos da Universidade do Porto (CIBIO/UP), Campus Agrário de Vairão, Rua Padre Armando Quintas 7, Vairão 4485-661, Portugal 4 Institute of Anthropology, Johannes-Gutenberg University Mainz, Anselm-Franz-von-Bentzel-Weg 7, Mainz 55128, Germany 5 Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland 6 Dipartimento di Biologia e Biotecnologie "L. Spallanzani", Università di Pavia, Pavia 27100, Italy 7 Research Laboratory for Archaeology, University of Oxford, Dyson Perrins Building, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY, UK 8 Mauritsstraat 167, Rotterdam 3012 CH, The Netherlands 9 Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa 1749-016, Portugal 10 Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, "Acad. Georgi Bonchev" str., bl. 25, Sofia 1113, Bulgaria 11 Biotechnology and Food Research, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen, Finland and Department of Biology, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland 12 CIGEBA, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Calle 60 y 118 s/n, La Plata, Buenos Aires 1900, Argentina 13 Animal Genomics Laboratory, UCD School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 January 2014 / Revised: 26 February 2014 / Accepted: 28 February 2014 / Published: 14 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Use of Molecular Markers in Genetic Diversity Research)
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Abstract

Several studies have investigated the differentiation of mitochondrial DNA in Eurasian, African and American cattle as well as archaeological bovine material. A global survey of these studies shows that haplogroup distributions are more stable in time than in space. All major migrations of cattle have shifted the haplogroup distributions considerably with a reduction of the number of haplogroups and/or an expansion of haplotypes that are rare or absent in the ancestral populations. The most extreme case is the almost exclusive colonization of Africa by the T1 haplogroup, which is rare in Southwest Asian cattle. In contrast, ancient samples invariably show continuity with present-day cattle from the same location. These findings indicate strong maternal founder effects followed by limited maternal gene flow when new territories are colonized. However, effects of adaptation to new environments may also play a role.
Keywords: cattle; breeds; mitochondrial DNA; haplogroups; migrations cattle; breeds; mitochondrial DNA; haplogroups; migrations
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Lenstra, J.A.; Ajmone-Marsan, P.; Beja-Pereira, A.; Bollongino, R.; Bradley, D.G.; Colli, L.; De Gaetano, A.; Edwards, C.J.; Felius, M.; Ferretti, L.; Ginja, C.; Hristov, P.; Kantanen, J.; Lirón, J.P.; Magee, D.A.; Negrini, R.; Radoslavov, G.A. Meta-Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Reveals Several Population Bottlenecks during Worldwide Migrations of Cattle. Diversity 2014, 6, 178-187.

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