Diversity 2013, 5(2), 293-319; doi:10.3390/d5020293

Evolutionary Hotspots in the Mojave Desert

1,* email, 2, 1, 2, 2, 2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,†, 5, 5,‡ and 1
Received: 1 March 2013; in revised form: 7 March 2013 / Accepted: 1 April 2013 / Published: 15 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogeography and Biodiversity Conservation)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Genetic diversity within species provides the raw material for adaptation and evolution. Just as regions of high species diversity are conservation targets, identifying regions containing high genetic diversity and divergence within and among populations may be important to protect future evolutionary potential. When multiple co-distributed species show spatial overlap in high genetic diversity and divergence, these regions can be considered evolutionary hotspots. We mapped spatial population genetic structure for 17 animal species across the Mojave Desert, USA. We analyzed these in concurrence and located 10 regions of high genetic diversity, divergence or both among species. These were mainly concentrated along the western and southern boundaries where ecotones between mountain, grassland and desert habitat are prevalent, and along the Colorado River. We evaluated the extent to which these hotspots overlapped protected lands and utility-scale renewable energy development projects of the Bureau of Land Management. While 30–40% of the total hotspot area was categorized as protected, between 3–7% overlapped with proposed renewable energy project footprints, and up to 17% overlapped with project footprints combined with transmission corridors. Overlap of evolutionary hotspots with renewable energy development mainly occurred in 6 of the 10 identified hotspots. Resulting GIS-based maps can be incorporated into ongoing landscape planning efforts and highlight specific regions where further investigation of impacts to population persistence and genetic connectivity may be warranted.
Keywords: genetic diversity and divergence; wildlife conservation; renewable energy development
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vandergast, A.G.; Inman, R.D.; Barr, K.R.; Nussear, K.E.; Esque, T.C.; Hathaway, S.A.; Wood, D.A.; Medica, P.A.; Breinholt, J.W.; Stephen, C.L.; Gottscho, A.D.; Marks, S.B.; Jennings, W.B.; Fisher, R.N. Evolutionary Hotspots in the Mojave Desert. Diversity 2013, 5, 293-319.

AMA Style

Vandergast AG, Inman RD, Barr KR, Nussear KE, Esque TC, Hathaway SA, Wood DA, Medica PA, Breinholt JW, Stephen CL, Gottscho AD, Marks SB, Jennings WB, Fisher RN. Evolutionary Hotspots in the Mojave Desert. Diversity. 2013; 5(2):293-319.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vandergast, Amy G.; Inman, Richard D.; Barr, Kelly R.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Esque, Todd C.; Hathaway, Stacie A.; Wood, Dustin A.; Medica, Philip A.; Breinholt, Jesse W.; Stephen, Catherine L.; Gottscho, Andrew D.; Marks, Sharyn B.; Jennings, W. B.; Fisher, Robert N. 2013. "Evolutionary Hotspots in the Mojave Desert." Diversity 5, no. 2: 293-319.

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