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Climate, Management and Habitat Associations of Avian Fauna in Restored Wetlands of California’s Central Valley, USA
Department of Wildlife, Humboldt State University, 1 Harpst St. Arcata, CA 95521, USA
United States Geological Survey, Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA 95521, USA
Conservation Science, 3820 Cypress Drive #11, Petaluma, CA 94954, USA
Department of Watershed Science and Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 September 2012; in revised form: 30 October 2012 / Accepted: 15 November 2012 / Published: 23 November 2012
Abstract: The Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) is one of several programs implemented by the United States Department of Agriculture to facilitate natural resource management on private lands. Since the WRP’s inception approximately 29,000 ha in California’s Central Valley (CCV) have been restored. However until now, actual benefits of the program to wildlife have never been evaluated. Hydrology in the CCV has been heavily modified and WRP wetlands are managed primarily to support wintering waterfowl. We surveyed over 60 WRP easements in 2008 and 2009 to quantify avian use and categorized bird species into 11 foraging guilds. We detected over 200 bird species in 2008 and 119 species in 2009, which is similar to or higher than numbers observed on other managed sites in the same area. We found that actively managed WRP wetlands support more waterfowl than sites under low or intermediate management, which is consistent with intended goals. Despite reported water shortages, greater upland and un-restored acreage in the southern CCV, WRP wetlands support large numbers of waterfowl and shorebirds, particularly in the early fall months. This is probably due to the severe lack of alternative habitat such as wildlife friendly crops at appropriate stages of the migration cycle. Improved access to water resources for hydrological management would greatly enhance waterfowl use in the southern CCV.
Keywords: avian use; restored wetlands; management intensity
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MDPI and ACS Style
Kahara, S.N.; Duffy, W.G.; DiGaudio, R.; Records, R. Climate, Management and Habitat Associations of Avian Fauna in Restored Wetlands of California’s Central Valley, USA. Diversity 2012, 4, 396-418.
Kahara SN, Duffy WG, DiGaudio R, Records R. Climate, Management and Habitat Associations of Avian Fauna in Restored Wetlands of California’s Central Valley, USA. Diversity. 2012; 4(4):396-418.
Kahara, Sharon N.; Duffy, Walter G.; DiGaudio, Ryan; Records, Rosemary. 2012. "Climate, Management and Habitat Associations of Avian Fauna in Restored Wetlands of California’s Central Valley, USA." Diversity 4, no. 4: 396-418.