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Social Organization of Crop Genetic Diversity. The G × E × S Interaction Model
CIRAD, UMR AGAP, Avenue Agropolis, TA A 96/03, Montpellier 34398, France
CIRAD, UMR 5175 CEFE, 1919 Route de Mende, Montpellier 34293, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 October 2011; in revised form: 28 November 2011 / Accepted: 12 December 2011 / Published: 21 December 2011
Abstract: A better knowledge of factors organizing crop genetic diversity in situ increases the efficiency of diversity analyses and conservation strategies, and requires collaboration between social and biological disciplines. Four areas of anthropology may contribute to our understanding of the impact of social factors on crop diversity: ethnobotany, cultural, cognitive and social anthropology. So far, most collaborative studies have been based on ethnobotanical methods, focusing on farmers’ individual motivations and actions, and overlooking the effects of farmer’s social organization per se. After reviewing common shortcomings in studies on sorghum and maize, this article analyzes how social anthropology, through the analysis of intermarriage, residence and seed inheritance practices, can contribute to studies on crop genetic diversity in situ. Crop varieties are thus considered social objects and socially based sampling strategies can be developed. Such an approach is justified because seed exchange is built upon trust and as such seed systems are embedded in a pre-existing social structure and centripetally oriented as a function of farmers’ social identity. The strong analogy between farmers’ cultural differentiation and crop genetic differentiation, both submitted to the same vertical transmission processes, allows proposing a common methodological framework for social anthropology and crop population genetics, where the classical interaction between genetic and environmental factors, G × E, is replaced by a three-way interaction G × E × S, where “S” stands for the social differentiation factors.
Keywords: crop genetic resources; cultural transmission; in situ conservation; interdisciplinary approach; maize; seed exchange; social differentiation; social network; sorghum
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Leclerc, C.; Coppens d’Eeckenbrugge, G. Social Organization of Crop Genetic Diversity. The G × E × S Interaction Model. Diversity 2012, 4, 1-32.
Leclerc C, Coppens d’Eeckenbrugge G. Social Organization of Crop Genetic Diversity. The G × E × S Interaction Model. Diversity. 2012; 4(1):1-32.
Leclerc, Christian; Coppens d’Eeckenbrugge, Geo. 2012. "Social Organization of Crop Genetic Diversity. The G × E × S Interaction Model." Diversity 4, no. 1: 1-32.