Next Article in Journal
Social Organization of Crop Genetic Diversity. The G × E × S Interaction Model
Previous Article in Journal
Ecological Impact on Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycling of a Widespread Fast-growing Leguminous Tropical Forest Plantation Tree Species, Acacia mangium
Diversity 2011, 3(4), 721-738; doi:10.3390/d3040721
Article

Phyllopshere Bacterial Community Structure of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) as Affected by Cultivar and Environmental Conditions at Time of Harvest

1
, 2
, 3
 and 1,*
Received: 9 November 2011; in revised form: 9 December 2011 / Accepted: 13 December 2011 / Published: 20 December 2011
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1296 KB, uploaded 20 December 2011]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: Modern molecular ecology techniques were used to demonstrate the effects of plant genotype and environmental conditions prior to harvest on the spinach epiphytic bacterial community. Three cultivars of spinach with different leaf topographies were collected at three different periods during the fall growing season. Leaf surface topography had an effect on diversity and number of culturable bacteria on the phylloepiphtyic community of spinach. Savoy cultivars, which had larger surface area and more stomata and glandular trichomes, where bacterial aggregates were observed, featured more diverse communities with increased richness and larger bacterial populations compared to flat-leaved cultivars. Bacterial community richness was compared using denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), while abundance was quantified using 16s rRNA primers for major phyla. The most diverse communities, both in richness and abundance, were observed during the first sampling period, immediately following a period of rapid spinach growth. Exposure to lower air and soil temperatures and decreased precipitation resulted in significantly reduced bacterial population size and bacterial community richness in November and December. This study describes the effect of the plant characteristics and environmental conditions that affect spinach microbiota population size and diversity, which might have implications in the survival of food and plant bacterial pathogens.
Keywords: spinach; cultivar; epiphytic bacteria; DGGE; bacterial richness; bacterial abundance spinach; cultivar; epiphytic bacteria; DGGE; bacterial richness; bacterial abundance
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Lopez-Velasco, G.; Welbaum, G.E.; Falkinham III, J.O.; Ponder, M.A. Phyllopshere Bacterial Community Structure of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) as Affected by Cultivar and Environmental Conditions at Time of Harvest. Diversity 2011, 3, 721-738.

AMA Style

Lopez-Velasco G, Welbaum GE, Falkinham III JO, Ponder MA. Phyllopshere Bacterial Community Structure of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) as Affected by Cultivar and Environmental Conditions at Time of Harvest. Diversity. 2011; 3(4):721-738.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lopez-Velasco, Gabriela; Welbaum, Gregory E.; Falkinham III, Joseph O.; Ponder, Monica A. 2011. "Phyllopshere Bacterial Community Structure of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) as Affected by Cultivar and Environmental Conditions at Time of Harvest." Diversity 3, no. 4: 721-738.


Diversity EISSN 1424-2818 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert