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Invasion Age and Invader Removal Alter Species Cover and Composition at the Suisun Tidal Marsh, California, USA
California Department of Fish and Game, 4001 North Wilson Way, Stockton, CA 95205, USA
Department of Biological Sciences, California State University, Sacramento, 6000 J Street, Sacramento, CA 95819, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 January 2011; in revised form: 6 May 2011 / Accepted: 10 May 2011 / Published: 19 May 2011
Abstract: Wetland ecosystems are vulnerable to plant species invasions, which can greatly alter species composition and ecosystem functioning. The response of these communities to restoration can vary following invader removal, but few studies have evaluated how recent and long-term invasions can affect the plant community’s restoration potential. Perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) has invaded thousands of hectares of marshland in the San Francisco Estuary, California, United States of America, while the effects of invasion and removal of this weed remain poorly studied. In this study, perennial pepperweed was removed along a gradient of invasion age in brackish tidal marshes of Suisun Marsh, within the Estuary. In removal plots, resident plant cover significantly increased during the 2-year study period, particularly in the densest and oldest parts of the perennial pepperweed colonies, while species richness did not change significantly. In bare areas created by removal of perennial pepperweed, recolonization was dominated by three-square bulrush (Schoenoplectus americanus). Ultimately, removal of invasive perennial pepperweed led to reinvasion of the resident plant community within two years. This study illustrates that it is important to consider invasion age, along with exotic species removal, when developing a restoration strategy in wetland ecosystems.
Keywords: Lepidium latifolium; plants; restoration; species invasion; tidal wetland; Suisun Marsh
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Estrella, S.; Kneitel, J.M. Invasion Age and Invader Removal Alter Species Cover and Composition at the Suisun Tidal Marsh, California, USA. Diversity 2011, 3, 235-251.
Estrella S, Kneitel JM. Invasion Age and Invader Removal Alter Species Cover and Composition at the Suisun Tidal Marsh, California, USA. Diversity. 2011; 3(2):235-251.
Estrella, Sarah; Kneitel, Jamie M. 2011. "Invasion Age and Invader Removal Alter Species Cover and Composition at the Suisun Tidal Marsh, California, USA." Diversity 3, no. 2: 235-251.