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Diversity 2018, 10(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10010009

Ecophysiological Response of Rhizophora mangle to the Variation in Hydrochemistry during Five Years along the Coast of Campeche, México

1
Facultad de Ciencias Químico Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Campeche, Av. Agustín Melgar s/n entre Juan de la Barrera y Calle 20, Col. Buenavista, A.P., San Francisco de Campeche 24039, Campeche, Mexico
2
Instituto EPOMEX, Universidad Autónoma de Campeche, Av. Agustín Melgar s/n entre Juan de la Barrera y Calle 20, Col. Buenavista, A.P., San Francisco de Campeche 24039, Campeche, Mexico
3
Laboratorio de Epidemiología y Ecología Molecular, Escuela de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Blvd. Zertuche y Blvd. de los Lagos s/n. Fracc. Valle Dorado C.P., Ensenada 22890, Baja California, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 November 2017 / Revised: 24 January 2018 / Accepted: 25 January 2018 / Published: 3 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mangrove Ecology and Conservation)
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Abstract

We evaluated the phenological response and litterfall production of Rhizophora mangle to changes in pore water chemistry over a five-year period (from 2009 to 2014 and 2010 to 2016) along the coast of Campeche, México. Severe drought conditions were recorded in 2009 with a Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) of −1.5 and again in 2015 with a SPI of −1.16). A precipitation deficit of 22.1% was recorded between 2009 and 2016 ranging from 9.5% in Laguna de Terminos in the south to 64.4% in Los Petenes Biosphere Reserve in the north. Precipitation varied significantly per year (p < 0.001), seasonally (p < 0.001), and between years and seasons (p < 0.001). An interaction was observed in the salinity (p < 0.05), redox potential (p < 0.001), and precipitation (p < 0.001) of the Laguna de Terminos, Rio Champoton, and Los Petenes Biosphere Reserve regions. Significant differences were found between the years in the leaf and propagule production (p < 0.001), and between seasons in production of leaves, flowers, and propagules (p < 0.001). The determining factor in the production of flowers during both the rainy and dry seasons was the salinity, and the determining factors for the production of propagules were the redox potential and salinity. The results of this study suggest a low phenotypic plasticity in R. mangle. View Full-Text
Keywords: total litterfall; drought; mangrove; salinity; potential redox; standardized index of precipitation total litterfall; drought; mangrove; salinity; potential redox; standardized index of precipitation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Chan-Keb, C.A.; Agraz-Hernández, C.M.; Muñiz-Salazar, R.; Posada-Vanegas, G.; Osti-Sáenz, J.; Reyes Castellano, J.E.; Conde-Medina, K.P.; Vega-Serratos, B.E. Ecophysiological Response of Rhizophora mangle to the Variation in Hydrochemistry during Five Years along the Coast of Campeche, México. Diversity 2018, 10, 9.

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