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Polymorphisms within the Toll-Like Receptor (TLR)-2, -4, and -6 Genes in Cattle
Dipartimento di Produzioni Animali, Università della Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy
Parco Tecnologico Padano, Polo Universitario, Lodi, Italy
Departamento de Producción Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 May 2009; Accepted: 17 July 2009 / Published: 30 July 2009
Abstract: In mammals, members of the TLR gene family play a primary role in the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns from bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi. Recently, cattle TLR genes have been mapped to chromosomes using a radiation hybrid panel. Nucleotide sequences of bovine TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6 genes were screened to identify novel SNPs that can be used in studies of cattle resistance to diseases. In total, 8 SNPs were identified and were submitted to the NCBI dbSNP database. The frequencies of the SNPs were assessed in 16 different bovine European cattle breeds and a phylogenetic analysis carried out to describe the relationships between the breeds. Even if from our analysis the SNPs do not appear located in loci under selection, a deviation of three SNPs from Hardy Weinberg equilibrium was observed, and we hypothesize that some of the polymorphisms may be fixated since many generations. The described variations in immune function related genes will contribute to research on disease response in cattle. In fact, the SNPs can be used in association studies between polymorphisms and cattle resistance to diseases.
Keywords: toll-like receptors; cattle; SNPs; diversity; genetic distances
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Mariotti, M.; Williams, J.L.; Dunner, S.; Valentini, A.; Pariset, L. Polymorphisms within the Toll-Like Receptor (TLR)-2, -4, and -6 Genes in Cattle. Diversity 2009, 1, 7-18.
Mariotti M, Williams JL, Dunner S, Valentini A, Pariset L. Polymorphisms within the Toll-Like Receptor (TLR)-2, -4, and -6 Genes in Cattle. Diversity. 2009; 1(1):7-18.
Mariotti, Marco; Williams, John L.; Dunner, Susana; Valentini, Alessio; Pariset, Lorraine. 2009. "Polymorphisms within the Toll-Like Receptor (TLR)-2, -4, and -6 Genes in Cattle." Diversity 1, no. 1: 7-18.