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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(8), 1379-1392; doi:10.3390/ijms9081379
Article

Enhanced Inhibitory Effect of Ultra-Fine Granules of Red Ginseng on LPS-induced Cytokine Expression in the Monocyte-Derived Macrophage THP-1 Cells

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Received: 7 April 2008; in revised form: 29 May 2008 / Accepted: 5 August 2008 / Published: 7 August 2008
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Abstract: Red ginseng is one of the most popular traditional medicines in Korea because its soluble hot-water extract is known to be very effective on enhancing immunity as well as inhibiting inflammation. Recently, we developed a new technique, called the HACgearshift system, which can pulverize red ginseng into the ultra-fine granules ranging from 0.2 to 7.0 μm in size. In this study, the soluble hot-water extract of those ultra-fine granules of red ginseng (URG) was investigated and compared to that of the normal-sized granules of red ginseng (RG). The high pressure liquid chromatographic analyses of the soluble hot-water extracts of both URG and RG revealed that URG had about 2-fold higher amounts of the ginsenosides, the biologically active components in red ginseng, than RG did. Using quantitative RT-PCR, cytokine profiling against the Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the monocyte-derived macrophage THP-1 cells demonstrated that the URG-treated cells showed a significant reduction in cytokine expression than the RG-treated ones. Transcription expression of the LPS-induced cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TGF-β was significantly inhibited by URG compared to RG. These results suggest that some biologically active and soluble components in red ginseng can be more effectively extracted from URG than RG by standard hot-water extraction.
Keywords: red ginseng; HAC-gearshift system; ultra-fine granules; anti-inflammatory effect; THP-1 cells red ginseng; HAC-gearshift system; ultra-fine granules; anti-inflammatory effect; THP-1 cells
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, H.-C.; Vinodhkumar, R.; Yoon, J.W.; Park, S.-K.; Lee, C.-W.; Kim, H.-Y. Enhanced Inhibitory Effect of Ultra-Fine Granules of Red Ginseng on LPS-induced Cytokine Expression in the Monocyte-Derived Macrophage THP-1 Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9, 1379-1392.

AMA Style

Lee H-C, Vinodhkumar R, Yoon JW, Park S-K, Lee C-W, Kim H-Y. Enhanced Inhibitory Effect of Ultra-Fine Granules of Red Ginseng on LPS-induced Cytokine Expression in the Monocyte-Derived Macrophage THP-1 Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2008; 9(8):1379-1392.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Hyoung-Cheol; Vinodhkumar, Radhakrishnan; Yoon, Jang W.; Park, Seong-Kyu; Lee, Chang-Won; Kim, Hong-Yeoul. 2008. "Enhanced Inhibitory Effect of Ultra-Fine Granules of Red Ginseng on LPS-induced Cytokine Expression in the Monocyte-Derived Macrophage THP-1 Cells." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 9, no. 8: 1379-1392.



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