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Key Labeling Technologies to Tackle Sizeable Problems in RNA Structural Biology
Lerner Research Institute, Department of Molecular Genetics and Center for Structural Biology, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
Received: 7 April 2008; in revised form: 6 June 2008 / Accepted: 14 July 2008 / Published: 14 July 2008
Abstract: The ability to adopt complex three-dimensional (3D) structures that can rapidly interconvert between multiple functional states (folding and dynamics) is vital for the proper functioning of RNAs. Consequently, RNA structure and dynamics necessarily determine their biological function. In the post-genomic era, it is clear that RNAs comprise a larger proportion (>50%) of the transcribed genome compared to proteins (≤ 2%). Yet the determination of the 3D structures of RNAs lags considerably behind those of proteins and to date there are even fewer investigations of dynamics in RNAs compared to proteins. Site specific incorporation of various structural and dynamic probes into nucleic acids would likely transform RNA structural biology. Therefore, various methods for introducing probes for structural, functional, and biotechnological applications are critically assessed here. These probes include stable isotopes such as 2H, 13C, 15N, and 19F. Incorporation of these probes using improved RNA ligation strategies promises to change the landscape of structural biology of supramacromolecules probed by biophysical tools such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography and Raman spectroscopy. Finally, some of the structural and dynamic problems that can be addressed using these technological advances are outlined.
Keywords: dynamics; FRET; isotopic labeling; ligation; NMR; Raman; RNA dynamics and folding and structure; X-ray crystallography.
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Dayie, K.T. Key Labeling Technologies to Tackle Sizeable Problems in RNA Structural Biology. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9, 1214-1240.
Dayie KT. Key Labeling Technologies to Tackle Sizeable Problems in RNA Structural Biology. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2008; 9(7):1214-1240.
Dayie, Kwaku T. 2008. "Key Labeling Technologies to Tackle Sizeable Problems in RNA Structural Biology." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 9, no. 7: 1214-1240.