Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(3), 355-370; doi:10.3390/ijms9030355
Review

Anti-Cancer Effects of Xanthones from Pericarps of Mangosteen

Received: 10 January 2008; in revised form: 13 February 2008 / Accepted: 15 February 2008 / Published: 14 March 2008
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Compounds for Cancer Treatment and Prevention)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana Linn, is a tree found in South East Asia, and its pericarps have been used as traditional medicine. Phytochemical studies have shown that they contain a variety of secondary metabolites, such as oxygenated and prenylated xanthones. Recent studies revealed that these xanthones exhibited a variety of biological activities containing anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-cancer effects. We previously investigated the anti-proliferative effects of four prenylated xanthones from the pericarps; α-mangostin, β-mangostin, γ-mangostin, and methoxy-β-mangostin in various human cancer cells. These xanthones are different in the number of hydroxyl and methoxy groups. Except for methoxy-β-mangostin, the other three xanthones strongly inhibited cell growth at low concentrations from 5 to 20 μM in human colon cancer DLD-1 cells. Our recent study focused on the mechanism of α-mangostin-induced growth inhibition in DLD-1 cells. It was shown that the anti-proliferative effects of the xanthones were associated with cell-cycle arrest by affecting the expression of cyclins, cdc2, and p27; G1 arrest by α- mangostin and β-mangostin, and S arrest by γ-mangostin. α-Mangostin found to induce apoptosis through the activation of intrinsic pathway following the down-regulation of signaling cascades involving MAP kinases and the serine/threonine kinase Akt. Synergistic effects by the combined treatment of α-mangostin and anti-cancer drug 5-FU was to be noted. α-Mangostin was found to have a cancer preventive effect in rat carcinogenesis bioassay and the extract from pericarps, which contains mainly α-mangostin and γ- mangostin, exhibited an enhancement of NK cell activity in a mouse model. These findings could provide a relevant basis for the development of xanthones as an agent for cancer prevention and the combination therapy with anti-cancer drugs.
Keywords: anti-cancer effect; Xanthones; apoptosis; α-mangostin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Akao, Y.; Nakagawa, Y.; Nozawa, Y. Anti-Cancer Effects of Xanthones from Pericarps of Mangosteen. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9, 355-370.

AMA Style

Akao Y, Nakagawa Y, Nozawa Y. Anti-Cancer Effects of Xanthones from Pericarps of Mangosteen. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2008; 9(3):355-370.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Akao, Yukihiro; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Nozawa, Yoshinori. 2008. "Anti-Cancer Effects of Xanthones from Pericarps of Mangosteen." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 9, no. 3: 355-370.

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