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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2002, 3(9), 948-964; doi:10.3390/i3090948
Article

Genotoxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids — Mechanisms Leading to DNA Adduct Formation and Tumorigenicity

1,* , 1, 2 and 1
Received: 7 June 2002; Accepted: 15 August 2002 / Published: 30 September 2002
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Abstract: Plants that contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids are widely distributed in the world. Although pyrrolizidine alkaloids have been shown to be genotoxic and tumorigenic in experimental animals, the mechanisms of actions have not been fully understood. The results of our recent mechanistic studies suggest that pyrrolizidine alkaloids induce tumors via a genotoxic mechanism mediated by 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5Hpyrrolizine (DHP)-derived DNA adduct formation. This mechanism may be general to most carcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, including the retronecine-, heliotridine-, and otonecinetype pyrrolizidine alkaloids. It is hypothesized that these DHP-derived DNA adducts are potential biomarkers of pyrrolizidine alkaloid tumorigenicity. The mechanisms that involve the formation of DNA cross-linking and endogenous DNA adducts are also discussed.
Keywords: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids; tumorigenicity; riddelliine; DNA adducts; genotoxic mechanism Pyrrolizidine alkaloids; tumorigenicity; riddelliine; DNA adducts; genotoxic mechanism
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fu, P.P.; Xia, Q.; Lin, G.; Chou, M.W. Genotoxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids — Mechanisms Leading to DNA Adduct Formation and Tumorigenicity. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2002, 3, 948-964.

AMA Style

Fu PP, Xia Q, Lin G, Chou MW. Genotoxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids — Mechanisms Leading to DNA Adduct Formation and Tumorigenicity. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2002; 3(9):948-964.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fu, Peter P.; Xia, Qingsu; Lin, Ge; Chou, Ming W. 2002. "Genotoxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids — Mechanisms Leading to DNA Adduct Formation and Tumorigenicity." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 3, no. 9: 948-964.



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