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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2625; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092625

Whole Genome Analysis of Cyclin Dependent Kinase (CDK) Gene Family in Cotton and Functional Evaluation of the Role of CDKF4 Gene in Drought and Salt Stress Tolerance in Plants

1
Research Base in Anyang Institute of Technology, State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology/Institute of Cotton Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science (ICR, CAAS), Anyang 455000, China
2
School of Biological and Physical sciences (SBPS), Main campus, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology (JOOUST), P.O Box 210-40601, Bondo, Kenya
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 August 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Plant Sciences)
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Abstract

Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the number one crop cultivated for fiber production and the cornerstone of the textile industry. Drought and salt stress are the major abiotic stresses, which can have a huge economic impact on cotton production; this has been aggravated with continued climate change, and compounded by pollution. Various survival strategies evolved by plants include the induction of various stress responsive genes, such as cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs). In this study, we performed a whole-genome identification and analysis of the CDK gene family in cotton. We identified 31, 12, and 15 CDK genes in G. hirsutum, G. arboreum, and G. raimondii respectively, and they were classified into 6 groups. CDK genes were distributed in 15, 10, and 9 linkage groups of AD, D, and A genomes, respectively. Evolutionary analysis revealed that segmental types of gene duplication were the primary force underlying CDK genes expansion. RNA sequence and RT-qPCR validation revealed that Gh_D12G2017 (CDKF4) was strongly induced by drought and salt stresses. The transient expression of Gh_D12G2017-GFP fusion protein in the protoplast showed that Gh_D12G2017 was localized in the nucleus. The transgenic Arabidopsis lines exhibited higher concentration levels of the antioxidant enzymes measured, including peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) concentrations under drought and salt stress conditions with very low levels of oxidants. Moreover, cell membrane stability (CMS), excised leaf water loss (ELWL), saturated leaf weight (SLW), and chlorophyll content measurements showed that the transgenic Arabidopsis lines were highly tolerant to either of the stress factors compared to their wild types. Moreover, the expression of the stress-related genes was also significantly up-regulated in Gh_D12G2017 (CDKF4) transgenic Arabidopsis plants under drought and salt conditions. We infer that CDKF-4s and CDKG-2s might be the primary regulators of salt and drought responses in cotton. View Full-Text
Keywords: cotton cyclin dependent kinase; segmental duplication; abiotic stress; plant growth and development; gene expression; transgenic arabidopsis lines; oxidant and antioxidant enzymes cotton cyclin dependent kinase; segmental duplication; abiotic stress; plant growth and development; gene expression; transgenic arabidopsis lines; oxidant and antioxidant enzymes
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Magwanga, R.O.; Lu, P.; Kirungu, J.N.; Cai, X.; Zhou, Z.; Wang, X.; Diouf, L.; Xu, Y.; Hou, Y.; Hu, Y.; Dong, Q.; Wang, K.; Liu, F. Whole Genome Analysis of Cyclin Dependent Kinase (CDK) Gene Family in Cotton and Functional Evaluation of the Role of CDKF4 Gene in Drought and Salt Stress Tolerance in Plants. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2625.

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