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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2626; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092626

Exosomal Chaperones and miRNAs in Gliomagenesis: State-of-Art and Theranostics Perspectives

1
Department of Experimental Biomedicine and Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Human Anatomy, University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy
2
Euro-Mediterranean Institute of Science and Technology (IEMEST), 90136 Palermo, Italy
3
Institute of Biophysics, National Research Council, 90143 Palermo, Italy
4
Department of Experimental Biomedicine and Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Neurosurgery, University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy
5
Department of Oncology and Molecular Medicine, National Institute of Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
6
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland at Baltimore-Institute of Marine and Environmental Technology (IMET), Baltimore, MD 21202, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
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Abstract

Gliomas have poor prognosis no matter the treatment applied, remaining an unmet clinical need. As background for a substantial change in this situation, this review will focus on the following points: (i) the steady progress in establishing the role of molecular chaperones in carcinogenesis; (ii) the recent advances in the knowledge of miRNAs in regulating gene expression, including genes involved in carcinogenesis and genes encoding chaperones; and (iii) the findings about exosomes and their cargo released by tumor cells. We would like to trigger a discussion about the involvement of exosomal chaperones and miRNAs in gliomagenesis. Chaperones may be either targets for therapy, due to their tumor-promoting activity, or therapeutic agents, due to their antitumor growth activity. Thus, chaperones may well represent a Janus-faced approach against tumors. This review focuses on extracellular chaperones as part of exosomes’ cargo, because of their potential as a new tool for the diagnosis and management of gliomas. Moreover, since exosomes transport chaperones and miRNAs (the latter possibly related to chaperone gene expression in the recipient cell), and probably deliver their cargo in the recipient cells, a new area of investigation is now open, which is bound to generate significant advances in the understanding and treatment of gliomas. View Full-Text
Keywords: gliomas; molecular chaperones; Hsps (Heat shock proteins); Hsp60; miRNA; exosomes; extracellular vesicles; theranostic tools gliomas; molecular chaperones; Hsps (Heat shock proteins); Hsp60; miRNA; exosomes; extracellular vesicles; theranostic tools
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Caruso Bavisotto, C.; Graziano, F.; Rappa, F.; Marino Gammazza, A.; Logozzi, M.; Fais, S.; Maugeri, R.; Bucchieri, F.; Conway de Macario, E.; Macario, A.J.L.; Cappello, F.; Iacopino, D.G.; Campanella, C. Exosomal Chaperones and miRNAs in Gliomagenesis: State-of-Art and Theranostics Perspectives. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2626.

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