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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2597; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092597

Evaluation of Active Brown Adipose Tissue by the Use of Hyperpolarized [1-13C]Pyruvate MRI in Mice

1
Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Aarhus University Hospital, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark
2
Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark
3
MR Research Center, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark
4
Department of Nuclear Medicine & PET Centre, Aarhus University Hospital, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
5
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Aarhus University Hospital, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 21 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Abstract

The capacity to increase energy expenditure makes brown adipose tissue (BAT) a putative target for treatment of metabolic diseases such as obesity. Presently, investigation of BAT in vivo is mainly performed by fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET)/CT. However, non-radioactive methods that add information on, for example, substrate metabolism are warranted. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate Magnetic Resonance Imaging (HP-MRI) to determine BAT activity in mice following chronic cold exposure. Cold (6 °C) and thermo-neutral (30 °C) acclimated mice were scanned with HP-MRI for assessment of the interscapular BAT (iBAT) activity. Comparable mice were scanned with the conventional method FDG PET/MRI. Finally, iBAT was evaluated for gene expression and protein levels of the specific thermogenic marker, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Cold exposure increased the thermogenic capacity 3–4 fold (p < 0.05) as measured by UCP1 gene and protein analysis. Furthermore, cold exposure as compared with thermo-neutrality increased iBAT pyruvate metabolism by 5.5-fold determined by HP-MRI which is in good agreement with the 5-fold increment in FDG uptake (p < 0.05) measured by FDG PET/MRI. iBAT activity is detectable in mice using HP-MRI in which potential changes in intracellular metabolism may add useful information to the conventional FDG PET studies. HP-MRI may also be a promising radiation-free tool for repetitive BAT studies in humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: brown adipose tissue; UCP1 expression; cold exposure; hyperpolarized pyruvate MRI; FDG PET brown adipose tissue; UCP1 expression; cold exposure; hyperpolarized pyruvate MRI; FDG PET
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Riis-Vestergaard, M.J.; Breining, P.; Pedersen, S.B.; Laustsen, C.; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, H.; Borghammer, P.; Jessen, N.; Richelsen, B. Evaluation of Active Brown Adipose Tissue by the Use of Hyperpolarized [1-13C]Pyruvate MRI in Mice. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2597.

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