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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1183; doi:10.3390/ijms19041183

The Double Face of Exosome-Carried MicroRNAs in Cancer Immunomodulation

1,2,†,* , 2,3,4,†
,
5,‡
and
2,4,‡
1
Institute of General Pathology, Università Cattolica and Policlinico Gemelli, 00168 Rome, Italy
2
Department of Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 00161 Rome, Italy
3
Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, “La Sapienza” University, 00161 Rome, Italy
4
Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, 00144 Rome, Italy
5
RPPA Unit, Proteomics Area, Core Facilties, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 00162 Rome, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of MicroRNAs in Human Diseases)
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Abstract

In recent years many articles have underlined the key role of nanovesicles, i.e., exosomes, as information carriers among biological systems including cancer. Tumor-derived exosomes (TEXs) are key players in the dynamic crosstalk between cancer cells and the microenvironment while promote immune system control evasion. In fact, tumors are undoubtedly capable of silencing the immune response through multiple mechanisms, including the release of exosomes. TEXs have been shown to boost tumor growth and promote progression and metastatic spreading via suppression or stimulation of the immune response towards cancer cells. The advantage of immunotherapeutic treatment alone over combining immuno- and conventional therapy is currently debated. Understanding the role of tumor exosome-cargo is of crucial importance for our full comprehension of neoplastic immonosuppression and for the construction of novel therapies and vaccines based on (nano-) vesicles. Furthermore, to devise new anti-cancer approaches, diverse groups investigated the possibility of engineering TEXs by conditioning cancer cells’ own cargo. In this review, we summarize the state of art of TEX-based immunomodulation with a particular focus on the molecular function of non-coding family genes, microRNAs. Finally, we will report on recent efforts in the study of potential applications of engineered exosomes in cancer immunotherapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: tumor-derived exosomes (TEXs); microRNAs; immune system; cancer tumor-derived exosomes (TEXs); microRNAs; immune system; cancer
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Alfonsi, R.; Grassi, L.; Signore, M.; Bonci, D. The Double Face of Exosome-Carried MicroRNAs in Cancer Immunomodulation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1183.

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