Bio-Based Cellulose Acetate Films Reinforced with Lignin and Glycerol
AbstractTwo sets of four cellulose acetate (degree of substitution = 2.2) were incorporated with lignin extracted from the macaúba endocarp, before and after being chemically modified to sodium carboxymethyl-lignin and aluminum carboxymethyl-lignin, respectively. The eight membranes were prepared by the casting method after dissolution in acetone and embedded with lignins (0.1% w/w), one without modification (CAc-Lig) and two chemically modified (CAc-CMLNa) and (CAc-CMLAl), compared to membranes of pure acetate (CAc). In group II, in the four membranes prepared, glycerol was added (10% w/w) as a plasticizer. The membranes were characterized by a number of techniques: thermal (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)), morphological (scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM)), structural (X-ray powder diffraction (XRD)), hydrophobic (contact angle and water vapor permeability), and thermomechanical (dynamic thermal mechanical analysis and tensile tests). The results show that despite some incompatibility with the cellulose acetate, the incorporation of the lignin in a concentration of 0.1% w/w acts as a reinforcement in the membrane, greatly increasing the tension rupture of the material. The presence of glycerol in a concentration of 10% w/w also acts as a reinforcement in all membranes, in addition to increasing the tension rupture. In this study, glycerol and acetate both increased the compatibility of the membranes. View Full-Text
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Gontijo de Melo, P.; Fornazier Borges, M.; Afonso Ferreira, J.; Vicente Barbosa Silva, M.; Ruggiero, R. Bio-Based Cellulose Acetate Films Reinforced with Lignin and Glycerol. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1143.
Gontijo de Melo P, Fornazier Borges M, Afonso Ferreira J, Vicente Barbosa Silva M, Ruggiero R. Bio-Based Cellulose Acetate Films Reinforced with Lignin and Glycerol. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(4):1143.Chicago/Turabian Style
Gontijo de Melo, Patricia; Fornazier Borges, Mariana; Afonso Ferreira, Jéssica; Vicente Barbosa Silva, Matheus; Ruggiero, Reinaldo. 2018. "Bio-Based Cellulose Acetate Films Reinforced with Lignin and Glycerol." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19, no. 4: 1143.
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