Next Article in Journal
A Phenotyping Method of Giant Cells from Root-Knot Nematode Feeding Sites by Confocal Microscopy Highlights a Role for CHITINASE-LIKE 1 in Arabidopsis
Previous Article in Journal
Amorphous, Smart, and Bioinspired Polyphosphate Nano/Microparticles: A Biomaterial for Regeneration and Repair of Osteo-Articular Impairments In-Situ
Previous Article in Special Issue
Modulation of Innate Immunity by lignin-Carbohydrate, a Novel TLR4 Ligand, Results in Augmentation of Mucosal IgA and Systemic IgG Production
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 428; doi:10.3390/ijms19020428

Protic Ionic Liquids for Lignin Extraction—A Lignin Characterization Study

Ionic Liquids & Electrolytes for Energy Technologies (ILEET) Laboratory, Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 27 November 2017 / Published: 31 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Lignin Challenge: Exploring Innovative Applications)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [15527 KB, uploaded 31 January 2018]   |  


Protic ionic liquids (PILs) have been established as effective solvents for the selective extraction and recovery of lignin from lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, we utilize extensive analytical techniques to characterize the PIL-extracted lignins to (1) expand on the physical/chemical structure, and to (2) develop a better understanding of the mechanism behind the lignin dissolution process. The PIL-lignins were characterized using elemental and FT-IR analyses, alongside molecular weight distribution and chemical modeling via MM2. For the more ionic pyrrolidinium acetate ([Pyrr][Ac]), there is an increase in the fragmentation of lignin, resulting in lignin with a smaller average molecular weight and a more uniform dispersity. This lends better understanding to previous findings indicating that higher ionicity in a PIL leads to increased lignin extraction. View Full-Text
Keywords: lignin; lignocellulose; biomass; bioproducts; biopolymer; lignin functionality; aromatic structure; protic ionic liquids lignin; lignocellulose; biomass; bioproducts; biopolymer; lignin functionality; aromatic structure; protic ionic liquids

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Achinivu, E.C. Protic Ionic Liquids for Lignin Extraction—A Lignin Characterization Study. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 428.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top