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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 751; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030751

Caloric Restriction and Its Effect on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate Variability and Arterial Stiffness and Dilatation: A Review of the Evidence

Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine and Heart Centre, Umea University, 901 87 Umea, Sweden
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Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 27 February 2018 / Accepted: 2 March 2018 / Published: 7 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathomechanisms of Atherosclerosis)
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Abstract

Essential hypertension, fast heart rate, low heart rate variability, sympathetic nervous system dominance over parasympathetic, arterial stiffness, endothelial dysfunction and poor flow-mediated arterial dilatation are all associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. This review of randomised controlled trials and other studies demonstrates that caloric restriction (CR) is capable of significantly improving all these parameters, normalising blood pressure (BP) and allowing patients to discontinue antihypertensive medication, while never becoming hypotensive. CR appears to be effective regardless of age, gender, ethnicity, weight, body mass index (BMI) or a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes, but the greatest benefit is usually observed in the sickest subjects and BP may continue to improve during the refeeding period. Exercise enhances the effects of CR only in hypertensive subjects. There is as yet no consensus on the mechanism of effect of CR and it may be multifactorial. Several studies have suggested that improvement in BP is related to improvement in insulin sensitivity, as well as increased nitric oxide production through improved endothelial function. In addition, CR is known to induce SIRT1, a nutrient sensor, which is linked to a number of beneficial effects in the body. View Full-Text
Keywords: blood pressure; heart rate variability; arterial stiffness; flow-mediated dilatation; caloric restriction fasting blood pressure; heart rate variability; arterial stiffness; flow-mediated dilatation; caloric restriction fasting
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Nicoll, R.; Henein, M.Y. Caloric Restriction and Its Effect on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate Variability and Arterial Stiffness and Dilatation: A Review of the Evidence. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 751.

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