On the Metal Cofactor in the Tyrosinase Family
AbstractThe production of pigment in mammalian melanocytes requires the contribution of at least three melanogenic enzymes, tyrosinase and two other accessory enzymes called the tyrosinase-related proteins (Trp1 and Trp2), which regulate the type and amount of melanin. The last two proteins are paralogues to tyrosinase, and they appeared late in evolution by triplication of the tyrosinase gene. Tyrosinase is a copper-enzyme, and Trp2 is a zinc-enzyme. Trp1 has been more elusive, and the direct identification of its metal cofactor has never been achieved. However, due to its enzymatic activity and similarities with tyrosinase, it has been assumed as a copper-enzyme. Recently, recombinant human tyrosinase and Trp1 have been expressed in enough amounts to achieve for the first time their crystallization. Unexpectedly, it has been found that Trp1 contains a couple of Zn(II) at the active site. This review discusses data about the metal cofactor of tyrosinase and Trps. It points out differences in the studied models, and it proposes some possible points accounting for the apparent discrepancies currently appearing. Moreover, some proposals about the possible flexibility of the tyrosinase family to uptake copper or zinc are discussed. View Full-Text
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Solano, F. On the Metal Cofactor in the Tyrosinase Family. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 633.
Solano F. On the Metal Cofactor in the Tyrosinase Family. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(2):633.Chicago/Turabian Style
Solano, Francisco. 2018. "On the Metal Cofactor in the Tyrosinase Family." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19, no. 2: 633.
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