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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020544

Bacterial Heterologous Expression System for Reconstitution of Chloroplast Inner Division Ring and Evaluation of Its Contributors

1
Academic Assembly, Institute of Agriculture, Shinshu University, Nagano 399-4598, Japan
2
Department of Life Science, College of Science, Rikkyo University, Tokyo 171-8501, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 January 2018 / Revised: 7 February 2018 / Accepted: 8 February 2018 / Published: 11 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chloroplast)
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Abstract

Plant chloroplasts originate from the symbiotic relationship between ancient free-living cyanobacteria and ancestral eukaryotic cells. Since the discovery of the bacterial derivative FtsZ gene—which encodes a tubulin homolog responsible for the formation of the chloroplast inner division ring (Z ring)—in the Arabidopsis genome in 1995, many components of the chloroplast division machinery were successively identified. The knowledge of these components continues to expand; however, the mode of action of the chloroplast dividing system remains unknown (compared to bacterial cell division), owing to the complexities faced in in planta analyses. To date, yeast and bacterial heterologous expression systems have been developed for the reconstitution of Z ring-like structures formed by chloroplast FtsZ. In this review, we especially focus on recent progress of our bacterial system using the model bacterium Escherichia coli to dissect and understand the chloroplast division machinery—an evolutionary hybrid structure composed of both bacterial (inner) and host-derived (outer) components. View Full-Text
Keywords: chloroplast division; Z ring; membrane-tethering; heterologous expression; E. coli; AtFtsZ1; AtFtsZ2; ARC6; ARC3 chloroplast division; Z ring; membrane-tethering; heterologous expression; E. coli; AtFtsZ1; AtFtsZ2; ARC6; ARC3
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Irieda, H.; Shiomi, D. Bacterial Heterologous Expression System for Reconstitution of Chloroplast Inner Division Ring and Evaluation of Its Contributors. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 544.

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