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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 458; doi:10.3390/ijms19020458

Molecular Pharmacology of Rosmarinic and Salvianolic Acids: Potential Seeds for Alzheimer’s and Vascular Dementia Drugs

Pharmacognosy Research Laboratories & Herbal Analysis Services, University of Greenwich, Central Avenue, Chatham-Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, UK
Received: 28 January 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2018 / Published: 3 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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Abstract

Both caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid (danshensu) are synthesized through two distinct routs of the shikimic acid biosynthesis pathway. In many plants, especially the rosemary and sage family of Lamiaceae, these two compounds are joined through an ester linkage to form rosmarinic acid (RA). A further structural diversity of RA derivatives in some plants such as Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is a form of RA dimer, salvianolic acid-B (SA-B), that further give rise to diverse salvianolic acid derivatives. This review provides a comprehensive perspective on the chemistry and pharmacology of these compounds related to their potential therapeutic applications to dementia. The two common causes of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and stroke, are employed to scrutinize the effects of these compounds in vitro and in animal models of dementia. Key pharmacological mechanisms beyond the common antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of polyphenols are highlighted with emphasis given to amyloid beta (Aβ) pathologies among others and neuronal regeneration from stem cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; amyloid beta; caffeic acid; danshensu; dementia; neurodegeneration; rosmarinic acid; salvianolic acids; tau protein Alzheimer’s disease; amyloid beta; caffeic acid; danshensu; dementia; neurodegeneration; rosmarinic acid; salvianolic acids; tau protein
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Habtemariam, S. Molecular Pharmacology of Rosmarinic and Salvianolic Acids: Potential Seeds for Alzheimer’s and Vascular Dementia Drugs. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 458.

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