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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020422

Cigarette Smoking Promotes Infection of Cervical Cells by High-Risk Human Papillomaviruses, but not Subsequent E7 Oncoprotein Expression

1
2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Hippokratio General Hospital, 54642 Thessaloniki, Greece
2
Institute of Applied Biosciences, Centre for Research & Technology-Hellas, 57001 Thessaloniki, Greece
3
Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, 68100 Alexandroupolis, Greece
4
Laboratory of Pharmacology, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, 68100 Alexandroupolis, Greece
5
Department of Gynecology, Charité-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, 10117 Berlin, Germany
6
Mikrogen GmbH, 82061 Neuried, Germany
7
4th Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Hippokratio General Hospital, 54642 Thessaloniki, Greece
8
Lab of Computing and Medical Informatics, Department of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
9
Research Institute for Biomedical Aging Research, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 January 2018 / Revised: 28 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Polyomaviruses and Papillomaviruses)
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Abstract

Persistent cervical infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPVs) is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for the development of cervical cancer. Therefore, there are other co-factors facilitating the hrHPV carcinogenic process, one of which is smoking. To assess the effect of smoking on high-risk (hr) HPV DNA positivity and on the expression of HPV E7 oncoprotein, as a surrogate of persistent hrHPV infection, we used data from women recruited for the PIPAVIR project, which examined the role of E7 protein detection in cervical cancer screening. Women were tested for hrHPV DNA, using Multiplex Genotyping (MPG), and E7 protein, using a novel sandwich ELISA method, and gave information on their smoking habits. Among 1473 women, hrHPV prevalence was 19.1%. The odds ratio (OR) for hrHPV positivity of smokers compared to non-smokers was 1.785 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.365–2.332, p < 0.001). The ORs for E7 positivity, concerning hrHPV positive women, ranged from 0.720 to 1.360 depending on the E7 detection assay used, but this was not statistically significant. Smoking increases the probability of hrHPV infection, and smoking intensity is positively associated to this increase. Smoking is not related to an increased probability of E7 protein positivity for hrHPV positive women. View Full-Text
Keywords: high-risk HPV infection; E7 oncoprotein; cigarette smoking; HPV carcinogenesis; cervical cancer high-risk HPV infection; E7 oncoprotein; cigarette smoking; HPV carcinogenesis; cervical cancer
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Chatzistamatiou, K.; Moysiadis, T.; Vryzas, D.; Chatzaki, E.; Kaufmann, A.M.; Koch, I.; Soutschek, E.; Boecher, O.; Tsertanidou, A.; Maglaveras, N.; Jansen-Duerr, P.; Agorastos, T. Cigarette Smoking Promotes Infection of Cervical Cells by High-Risk Human Papillomaviruses, but not Subsequent E7 Oncoprotein Expression. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 422.

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